Dr. Julie McElrath has witnessed the devastation of the HIV epidemic since the early 1980s as an infectious disease physician caring for patients and as a clinical researcher overseeing international collaborative cohort and vaccine studies that may inform and accelerate HIV vaccine development. She is the Principal Investigator of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) Laboratory Program and the Seattle Vaccine Trials Unit, and has led several projects within the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD) and for related Gates Foundation projects. For more information about Dr. McElrath, see her investigator profile.
The McElrath laboratory applies multi-disciplinary and cross-platform approaches to their studies, which encompass the following research areas:
The Seattle VTU, led by Principal Investigator Julie McElrath, is one of the 12 U.S. clinical trials units within the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). This network is funded to conduct phase I, II, and III clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of HIV vaccines. Located on Capitol Hill, the VTU is a joint research program between the FHCRC and the University of Washington.
Since 1987, the Seattle VTU has worked with local community members who are interested in participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials and has provided HIV education to the local community. As a part of the HVTN, the Seattle VTU is also involved in the design of the clinical protocols for the HIV vaccine trials. The Seattle VTU recently expanded its scope, and now also enrolls volunteers in studies of malaria and rhinovirus vaccines. As a clinical trial unit, the VTU is responsible for the recruitment, selection, and enrollment of local volunteers, immunization and clinical monitoring of the clinical trial participants, and manages follow-up care for trial participants.
As a part of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network, the HVTN Laboratory Center provides laboratory-based vaccine evaluation to advance HIV vaccine development. Specifically, the HVTN laboratory performs validated immunologic, HIV diagnostic, and protocol support assays for endpoints of HVTN Phase I through Phase III trials. Depending on the predetermined trial endpoint, these assays either characterize the immunogenicity of the candidate HIV immunogens and vaccine regimens or produce the HIV diagnostics required to distinguish between vaccine-induced seropositivity and acquisition of HIV infection in vaccine trial participants. By performing validated assays, the HVTN is able to compare vaccine candidates between different trials.
Another research interest of the Laboratory is to comprehensively define qualities of vaccine immunogenicity that may predict the immune responses required for protection against HIV infection or disease progression. To achieve this goal, our research focuses on:
A leader in assay development, the Laboratory continues to improve and explore alternative methods, including systems biology approaches, multiparameter phenotyping and functional characterization of leukocyte subsets, host and viral genomics, as well as multiplex transcriptional, cytokine, and proteomic profiling.
The Laboratory is committed to maintaining the highest standards in assay performance. These standards are maintained by the implementation of a rigorous DAIDS-accredited Quality Assurance/Quality Control and Operations Program. This program supports the HVTN Site Affiliated Laboratories to maintain HVTN-quality standards, training, certification, and monitoring for specimen handling and processing.
By providing high-quality, state-of-the-art laboratory-based clinical research and immune monitoring, the HVTN laboratory supports the HVTN’s mission to facilitate the process of testing preventive vaccines against HIV/AIDS.
Julie McElrath, M.D. Ph.D.Principal Investigator, Joel D. Meyers Endowed Chair, and Director of HVTN Laboratory Center firstname.lastname@example.org 206-667-6704
The Cape Town HVTN Immunology Laboratory (CHIL) opened in October 2013 and performs assessments of immune responses to candidate HIV vaccines being tested in South Africa and neighboring countries. Currently, the majority of work being conducted at the lab is in support of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) whose goal is to develop a safe, effective vaccine for prevention of HIV infections globally. The HVTN’s headquarters are based in Seattle, WA, USA at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
The laboratory also trains African scientists to carry out cutting edge clinical laboratory research and collaborates with local investigators to discover novel immune responses to vaccination.
Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery
Adjuvant comparison project: Experimental evidence has found that vaccine adjuvants trigger specific molecular pathways of the innate immune system, ultimately shaping the long-term adaptive immunity that defines vaccine-induced protection against infection. In an effort to accelerate HIV vaccine development, we have formed a partnership with several academic, biotech, and industry leaders to determine if one or more novel HIV-1 Env glycoprotein/adjuvant vaccine formulations can induce greater antibody potency and durability than seen with alum-formulated envelope proteins more commonly used in clinical studies. The overall experimental design will determine if one or more Env/adjuvant formulatioss can heighten the peak and extend the duration of antibody (Ab) responses, and if HIV-1 Env induces inherently different and less potent/durable antibodies than other viral subunit protein vaccines.
RepliVax project: We are collaborating with Dr. Giuseppe Pantaleo at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois in Lausanne, Switzerland to develop vaccine platforms for optimal generation of antibody responses. The Pantaleo CAVD consortium will develop RepliVax, a replication competent self-limiting single cycle flavivirus vector-based HIV vaccine candidate, and generate novel Env immunogens. We will compare and characterize the immunological profiles of HIV Env protein vaccines with potent adjuvants for use in a prime/boost regimen with RepliVax. Our objective is to induce optimal, robust and durable antibody responses to HIV Env.
Dimeric IgA project: We are collaborating with Dr. Barton Haynes at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina to understand the requirements for protection against HIV-1 virus with IgA antibodies at the mucosal surfaces. The Haynes CAVD consortium will investigate the roles that monomeric, dimeric IgA and secretory IgA play in prevention of HIV-1 transmission. These forms of IgA antibodies with the same antigen binding domains will be evaluated for their capacity to inhibit HIV-1 infection, using a variety of in vitro assays, tissue explants models, and non-human primate model of HIV/AIDS. Our objective is to identify one or more recombinant IgAs that can block mucosal infection in the vaginal explant model at a concentration that is potentially achievable by immunization or passive antibody transfer.
Tuberculosis and Malaria Vaccines
Building on the skill and expertise of the HVTN Laboratory Program in testing the immunogenicity of HIV vaccines, the McElrath laboratory recently initiated collaborations to assess immune responses to candidate malaria and tuberculosis vaccines in conjunction with several partners. The tools and methods developed over the past decade by the Laboratory Program readily transfer to assessing these diseases, which are major health burdens in the areas most affected by the HIV epidemic and significantly contribute to morbidity in co-infected patients. Identifying an effective vaccine for these diseases will have a dramatic social, fiscal and health impact in these regions.
Specifically for Malaria, we have two research aims. The first is identifying immune signatures associated with acquired immunity to malaria infection in endemic regions (Uganda). The Partners Study tracked the occurrence of HIV acquisition in discordant couples. A correlation was observed between elevations of certain serum cytokine levels at the last sampling time point prior to seroconversion and acquisition of HIV. Since malaria infection can elevate serum cytokine levels, it has been hypothesized that malaria infection could be a risk factor for HIV acquisition. Here we determined whether Plasmodium species infection is correlated with HIV acquisition. The majority of the blood samples analyzed were collected at the last visit prior to diagnosis of HIV infection. Our second aims looks to comprehensively define immunogenicity and potential correlates of risk/protection in the RTS,S malaria vaccine phase III efficacy trial (Tanzania, Mozambique). Work on this on-going.
As part of our Strategic Plan, we have established a Vaccine Discovery Scientific Research Component (SRSC) (PI: Julie McElrath, Fred Hutchison Cancer Center). This SRSC will be a small, integrated scientific body (“the Vaccine Discovery Group”) with broad expertise in vaccine development and a commitment to contribute to the design of a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Its membership includes academics who have successfully advanced immunogen concepts to licensure by industry, those who have overseen industry efforts leading to vaccine licensure, and persons with extensive knowledge of and leadership in the clinical HIV vaccine field. We envisage this SRSC acting initially in an advisory capacity as a readily accessible, informal sounding board for the CHAVI-ID Executive Committee (CEC) in many matters relating to vaccine discovery. The members of the Group will be fully available and accessible to CHAVI-ID investigators through their attendance at CHAVI-ID meetings and on an ad hoc basis. As immunogens and immunization regimes are discovered, the Group will provide guidance, based on individual experience, toward maintaining an appropriate balance between immunogens that can be successfully formulated for licensure and administered safely with those that may elicit a potential desired protective immune response by a candidate HIV vaccine. They will provide advice on prerequisites for regulatory submissions and trial designs that can streamline efforts for the vaccine’s future critical path to advanced testing. They will also advise on vaccine production. In the later years of the CHAVI-ID, depending upon progress, we envisage the Group forming a Focus team to move the best vaccine candidates and strategies into clinical trials. The long-term interaction of the Group with the CHAVI-ID Director and the SLG should facilitate a smooth transition towards the ultimate goal of the CHAVI-ID.
Long Term Non-Progressor Cohort (LTNP)
Approximately 5-10% of individuals with documented HIV-1 infection fail to experience CD4+ T-cell depletion, immunosuppression, and opportunistic infections after a decade of diagnosis. These individuals, designated long-term non-progressors (LTNP), are a heterogeneous group in which various genetic, immune and viral factors may delineate long-term prognosis. By recognizing the relative contribution of each of these factors to the LTNP phenotype, we can derive insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-1 disease and the protective mechanisms that prevent progression. Thus, we are conducting longitudinal, observational studies to examine immune responses in a cohort of LTNP. The goal of these studies is primarily to determine the role of virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) activity versus CCR5 expression on viral load, the role of T helper responses in sustaining CTL responses, the patterns of epitope recognition associated with alterations in viral load, and the viral load in mucosal compartments in comparison to peripheral blood. By understanding these mechanisms in LTNP, we can apply this knowledge to designing preventative measures against HIV-1 disease and progression.
Fast facts about the LTNP cohort:
H.E. Janes, K.W. Cohen, N. Frahm, S.C. De Rosa, B. Sanchez, J. Hural, C.A. Magaret, S. Karuna, C. Bentley, R. Gottardo, G. Finak, D. Grove, M. Shen, B.S. Graham, R.A. Koup, M.J. Mulligan, B. Koblin, S.P. Buchbinder, M.C. Keefer, E. Adams, C. Anude, L. Corey, M. Sobieszczyk, S.M. Hammer, P.B. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath. Higher T cell responses induced by DNA/rAd5 HIV-1 preventive vaccine are associated with lower HIV-1 infection risk in an efficacy trial. J Infect Dis, in press, 2017.
M.J. McElrath. Adjuvants – Tailoring Humoral Immune Responses. Curr Opin HIV AIDS, in press, 2017.
Y. Huang, L. Zhang, H. Janes, N. Frahm, A. Isaacs, J.H. Kim, D. Montefiori, M.J. McElrath, G.D. Tomaras, P.B. Gilbert. Predictors of durable immune responses six months after the last vaccination in preventative HIV vaccine trials. Vaccine, 35(8): 1184-1193, 2017.
J. Lee, M. Hashimoto, S.J. Im, K. Araki, H.T. Jin, C.W. Davis, B.T. Konieczny, G.A. Spies, M.J. McElrath, R. Ahmed. Adenovirus serotype 5 vaccination results in suboptimal CD4 T helper 1 responses in mice. J Virol., in press, 2017.
R.D. Astronomo, S. Santra, L. Ballweber-Fleming, K.G. Westerberg, L. Mach, T. Hensley-McBain, L. Sutherland, B. Mildenberg, G. Morton, N.L. Yates, G.J. Mize, J. Pollara, F. Hladik, C. Ochsenbauer, T.N. Denny, R. Warrier, S. Rerks-Ngarm, P. Pitisuttithum, S. Nitayapan, J. Kaewkungwal, G. Ferrari, G.M. Shaw, S.M. Xia, H.X. Liao, D.C. Montefiori, G.D. Tomaras, B.F. Haynes, M.J. McElrath. Neutralization Takes Precedence Over IgG or IgA Isotype-related Functions in Mucosal HIV-1 Antibody-mediated Protection. EBioMedicine, 14:97-111, 2016.
E. Andersen-Nissen, J.T. Chang, K.K. Thomas, D. Adams, C. Celum, J. Sanchez, R.W. Coombs, M.J. McElrath, J.M. Baeten. Herpes simplex virus suppressive therapy in Herpes Simples Virus-2/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 co-infected women is associated with reduced systemic CXCL10 but not genital cytokines. Sex Transm Dis., 43(12):761-764, 2016.
T. Hertz, M.G. Logan, M. Rolland, C.A. Magaret, C. Rademeyer, A. Fiore-Gartland, P.T. Edlefsen, A. DeCamp, H. Ahmed, N. Ngandu, B.B. Larsen, N. Frahm, J. Marais, R. Thebus, D. Geraghty, J. Hural, L. Corey, J. Kublin, G. Gray, M.J. McElrath, J.I. Mullins, P.B. Gilbert, C. Williamson. A study of vaccine-induced immune pressure on breakthrough infections in the Phambili phase 2b HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. Vaccine, 34(47):5792-5801, 2016.
J.R. Lama, S.T. Karuna, S.P. Grant, E.M. Swann, C. Ganoza, P. Segura, S.M. Montano, M. Lacherre, S.C. De Rosa, S. Buchbinder, J. Sanchez, M.J. McElrath, M.P. Lemos, for the HVTN 914 Study Team. Transient peripheral immune activation follows elective sigmoidoscopy or circumcision in MSM at risk of HIV infection. PLoS ONE 11(8):e0160487, 2016.
C. Rademeyer, B. Korber, M.S. Seaman, E.E. Giorgi, R. Thebus, A. Robles, D.J. Sheward, K. Wagh, J. Garrity, B.R. Carey, H. Gao, K.M. Greene, H. Tang, G.P. Bandawe, J.C. Marais, T.E. Diphoko, P. Hraber, N. Tumba, P.L. Moore, G.E. Gray, J. Kublin, M.J. McElrath, M. Vermeulen, K. Middelkoop, L.G. Bekker, M. Hoelscher, L. Maboko, J. Makhema, M.L. Robb, S. Abdool Karim, Q. Abdool Karim, J.H. Kim, B.H. Hahn, F. Gao, R. Swanstrom, L. Morris, D.C. Montefiori, C. Williamson. Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive Immunization. PLoS Pathog. 12(7):e1005742, 2016.
Y. Huang, C. DiazGranados, H. Janes, Y. Huang, A.C. deCamp, B. Metch, S. Grant, B. Sanchez, S. Phogat, M. Koutsoukos, N. Kanesa-Thasan, P. Bourguignon, A. Collard, S. Buchbinder, G.D. Tomaras, J. McElrath, G. Gray, J.G. Kublin, L. Corey, P.B. Gilbert. Selection of HIV vaccine candidates for concurrent testing in an efficacy trial. Curr Opin Virol. 17:57-65, 2016.
J.M. Jacobson, L. Zheng, C.C. Wilson, P. Tebas, R.M. Matining, M.A. Egan, J. Eldridge, A.L. Landay, D.B. Clifford, A.F. Luetkemeyer, J. Tiu, A.L. Martinez, J. Janik, T.A. Spitz, J. Hural, J. McElrath, N. Frahm; ACTG A5281 Protocol Team. The Safety and Immunogenicity of an Interleukin-12-Enhanced Multiantigen DNA Vaccine Delivered by Electroporation for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 71(2):163-71, 2016.
S.M. Hughes, Z. Shu, C.N. Levy, A.L. Ferre, H. Hartig, C. Fang, G. Lentz, M. Fialkow, A.C. Kirby, K.M. Adams Waldorf, R.S. Veazey, A. Germann, H. von Briesen, M.J. McElrath, C.S. Dezzutti, E. Sinclair, C.A. Baker, B.L. Shacklett, D. Gao, F. Hladik. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes. PLoS One, 11(5):e0156293, 2016.
C.K. Slichter, A. McDavid, H.W. Miller, G. Finak, B.J. Seymour, J.P. McNevin, G. Diaz, J.L. Czartoski, M.J. McElrath, R. Gottardo, M. Prlic. Distinct activation thresholds of human conventional and innate-like memory T cells. JCI Insight, 1(8).pii:e86292, 2016.
T. Schoofs, F. Klein, M. Braunschweig, E.F. Kreider, A. Feldmann, L. Nogueira, T. Oliveira, J.C. Lorenzi, E.H. Parrish, G.H. Learn, A.P. West Jr, P.J. Bjorkman, S.J. Schlesinger, M.S. Seaman, J. Czartoski, M.J. McElrath, N. Pfeifer, B.H. Hahn, M. Caskey, M.C. Nussenzweig. HIV-1 therapy with monoclonal antibody 3BNC117 elicits host immune responses against HIV-1. Science, 352(6288):997-1001, 2016.
I.D. Milligan, M.M. Gibani, R. Sewell, E.A. Clutterbuck, D. Campbell, E. Plested, E. Nuthall, M. Voysey, L. Silva-Reyes, M.J. McElrath, S.C. De Rosa, N. Frahm, K.W. Cohen, G. Shukarev, N. Orzabal, W. van Duijnhoven, C. Truyers, N. Bachmayer, D. Splinter, N. Samy, M.G. Pau, H. Schuitemaker, K. Luhn, B. Callendret, J. Van Hoof, M. Douoguih, K. Ewer, B. Angus, A.J. Pollard, M.D. Snape. Safety and Immunogenicity of Novel Adenovirus Type 26- and Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Vectored Ebola Vaccines: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 315(15):1610-23, 2016.
A. Tjernlund, A. Burgener, J.M. Lindvall, T. Peng, J. Zhu, L. Öhrmalm, L.J. Picker, K. Broliden, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey. In Situ Staining and Laser Capture Microdissection of Lymph Node Residing SIV Gag-Specific CD8+ T cells-A Tool to Interrogate a Functional Immune Response Ex Vivo. PLoS One, 11(3):e0149907, 2016.
C. Havenar-Daughton, M. Lindqvist, A. Heit, J.E. Wu, S.M. Reiss, K. Kendric, S. Bélanger, S.P. Kasturi, E. Landais, R.S. Akondy, H.M. McGuire, M. Bothwell, P.A. Vagefi, E. Scully; IAVI Protocol C Principal Investigators, G.D. Tomaras, M.M. Davis, P. Poignard, R. Ahmed, B.D. Walker, B. Pulendran, M.J. McElrath, D.E. Kaufmann, S. Crotty. CXCL13 is a plasma biomarker of germinal center activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113(10):2702-7, 2016.
A. Fiore-Gartland, B.A. Manso, D.P. Friedrich, E.E. Gabriel, G. Finak, Z. Moodie, T. Hertz, S.C. De Rosa, N. Frahm, P.B. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath. Pooled-Peptide Epitope Mapping Strategies Are Efficient and Highly Sensitive: An Evaluation of Methods for Identifying Human T Cell Epitope Specificities in Large-Scale HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trials. PLoS One 11(2): e0147812, 2016.
L. Pattacini, J.M. Baeten, K.K. Thomas, T.R. Fluharty, P.M. Murnane, D. Donnell, E. Bukusi, A. Ronald, N. Mugo, J.R. Lingappa, C. Celum, M.J. McElrath, J.M. Lund; Partners PrEP Study Team. Regulatory T-cell activity but not conventional HIV-specific T-cell responses are associated with protection from HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 72(2):119-28, 2016.
G. Finak, A. McDavid, M. Yajima, J. Deng, V. Gersuk, A.K. Shalek, C.K. Slichter, H.W. Miller, M.J. McElrath, M. Prlic, P.S. Linsley, R. Gottardo. MAST: a flexible statistical framework for assessing transcriptional changes and characterizing heterogeneity in single-cell RNA sequencing data. Genome Biol. 16: 278, 2015.
J.D. Fuchs, P.A. Bart, N. Frahm, C. Morgan, P.B. Gilbert, N. Kochar, S.C. De Rosa, G.D. Tomaras, T.M. Wagner, L.R. Baden, B.A. Koblin, N.G. Rouphael, S.A. Kalams, M.C. Keefer, P.A. Goepfert, M.E. Sobieszczyk, K.H. Mayer, E. Swann, H.X. Liao, B.F. Haynes, B.S. Graham, M.J. McElrath; NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 35-Vectored HIV-1 Vaccine in Adenovirus Serotype 5 Seronegative and Seropositive Individuals. J AIDS Clin Res. 6(5):461, 2015.
L.R. Baden, E. Karita, G. Mutua, L-G. Bekker, G. Gray, L. Page-Shipp, S.R. Walsh, J. Nyombayire, O. Anzala, S. Roux, F. Laher, C. Innes, M. Seaman, Y.Z. Cohen, L. Peter, N. Frahm, M.J. McElrath, P. Hayes, E. Swann, N. Grunenberg, M. Grazia-Pau, M. Weijtens, J. Sadoff, L. Dally, A. Lombardo, J. Gilmour, J. Cox, M. Pensiero, R. Dolin, P. Fast, D.H. Barouch, D.S. Laufer. Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med., 164(5):313-22, 2016.
M.P. Lemos, S.T. Karuna, G.J. Mize, Y. Fong, S.M. Montano, C. Ganoza, J.R. Lama, J. Sanchez, M.J. McElrath. In Men at Risk of HIV Infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3 and IgA Reach the Human Foreskin Epidermis. Mucosal Immunol., 9(3):798-808, 2016.
A.W. Chung, M.P. Kumar, K.B. Arnold, W.H. Yu, M.K. Schoen, L.J. Dunphy, T.J. Suscovich, N. Frahm, C. Linde, A.E. Mahan, M. Hoffner, H. Streeck, M.E. Ackerman, M.J. McElrath, H. Schuitemaker, M.G. Pau, L.R. Baden, J.H. Kim, N.L. Michael, D.H. Barouch, D.A. Lauffenburger, G. Alter. Dissecting Polyclonal Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immunity against HIV Using Systems Serology. Cell 163(4): 988-998, 2015.
S.R. Walsh, Z. Moodie, A.J. Fiore-Gartland, C. Morgan, M.B. Wilck, S.M. Hammer, S.P. Buchbinder, S.A. Kalams, P.A. Goepfert, M.J. Mulligan, M.C. Keefer, L.R. Baden, E.M. Swann, S. Grant, H. Ahmed, F. Li, T. Hertz, S.G. Self, D. Friedrich, N. Frahm, H.X. Liao, D.C. Montefiori, G.D. Tomaras, M.J. McElrath, J. Hural, B.S. Graham, X. Jin, for the HVTN 083 Study Group and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Vaccination with heterologous HIV envelope sequences and heterologous adenovirus vectors increases T cell responses to conserved regions (HVTN 083). J Infect Dis., 213(4):541-50, 2016.
C. Seshadri, L. Lin, T.J. Scriba, G. Peterson, D. Freidrich, N. Frahm, S.C. De Rosa, D.B. Moody, J. Prandi, M. Gilleron, H. Mahomed, W. Jiang, G. Finak, W.A. Hanekom, R. Gottardo, M.J. McElrath, T.R. Hawn. T Cell Responses against Mycobacterial Lipids and Proteins Are Poorly Correlated in South African Adolescents. J Immunol. 195(10): 4595-4603, 2015.
Y. Huang, D. Follmann, M. Nason, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, D.V. Mehrotra, Z. Moodie, B. Metch, H. Janes, M.C. Keefer, G. Churchyard, M.L. Robb, P.E. Fast, A. Duerr, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, J.R. Mascola, B.S. Graham, M.E. Sobieszczyk, J.G. Kublin, M. Robertson, S.M. Hammer, G.E. Gray, S.P. Buchbinder, P.B. Gilbert. Effect of rAd5-Vector HIV-1 Preventive Vaccines on HIV-1 Acquisition: A Participant-Level Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. PLoS One 10(9):e0136626, 2015.
H. Janes, J.T. Herbeck, S. Tovanabutra, R. Thomas, N. Frahm, A. Duerr, J. Hural, L. Corey, S.G. Self, S.P. Buchbinder, M.J. McElrath, R.J. O'Connell, R.M. Paris, S. Rerks-Ngarm, S. Nitayaphan, P. Pitisuttihum, J. Kaewkungwal, M.L. Robb, N.L. Michael, J.I. Mullins, J.H. Kim, P.B. Gilbert, M. Rolland. HIV-1 infections with multiple founders are associated with higher viral loads than infections with single founders. Nat Med. 21(10):1139-41, 2015.
C. Carpenter, J. Sidney, R. Kolla, K. Nayak, H. Tomiyama, C. Tomiyama, O.A. Padilla, V. Rozot, S.F. Ahamed, C. Ponte, V. Rolla, P.R. Antas, A. Chandele, J. Kenneth, S. Laxmi, E. Makgotlho, V. Vanini, G. Ippolito, A.S. Kazanova, A.V. Panteleev, W. Hanekom, H. Mayanja-Kizza, D. Lewinsohn, M. Saito, M.J. McElrath, W.H. Boom, D. Goletti, R. Gilman, I.V. Lyadova, T.J. Scriba, E.G. Kallas, K. Murali-Krishna, A. Sette, C.S. Lindestam Arlehamn. A side-by-side comparison of T cell reactivity to fifty-nine Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in diverse populations from five continents. Tuberculosis (Edinb.), 95(6):713-21, 2015.
W.B. Williams, H-X. Liao, M.A. Moody, T.B. Kepler, S.M. Alam, F. Gao, K. Wiehe, A.M. Trama, K. Jones, R. Zhang, H. Song, D.J. Marshall, J.F. Whitesides, K. Sawatzki, A. Hua, P. Liu, M.Z. Tay, K. Seaton, X. Shen, A. Foulger, K.E. Lloyd, R. Parks, J. Pollara, G. Ferrari, J-S. Yu, N. Vandergrift, D.C. Montefiori, M.E. Sobieszczyk, S. Hammer, S. Karuna, P. Gilbert, D. Grove, N. Grunenberg, M.J. McElrath, J.R. Mascola, R.A. Koup, L. Corey, G.J. Nabel, C. Morgan, G. Churchyard, J. Maenza, M. Keefer, B.S. Graham, L.R. Baden, G.D. Tomaras, B.F. Haynes. Diversion of HIV-1 Vaccine-induced Immunity by gp41-Microbiota Cross-reactive Antibodies. Science 349(6249):aab1253, 2015.
H.A. Prentice, G.D. Tomaras, D.E. Geraghty, R. Apps, Y. Fong, P.K. Ehrenberg, M. Rolland, G.H. Kijak, S.J. Krebs, W. Nelson, A. DeCamp, X. Shen, N.L. Yates, S. Zolla-Pazner, S. Nitayaphan, S. Rerks-Ngarm, J. Kaewkungwal, P. Pitisuttithum, G. Ferrari, M.J. McElrath, D.C. Montefiori, R.T. Bailer, R.A. Koup, R.J. O'Connell, M.L. Robb, N.L. Michael, P.B. Gilbert, J.H. Kim, R. Thomas. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition. Sci Transl Med. 7(296):296ra112, 2015.
L. Lin, J. Frelinger, W. Jiang, G. Finak, C. Seshadri, P.A. Bart, G. Pantaleo G, J. McElrath, S. DeRosa, R. Gottardo. Identification and visualization of multidimensional antigen-specific T-cell populations in polychromatic cytometry data. Cytometry A, 87(7):675-82, 2015.
X. Shen, R. Duffy, R. Howington, A. Cope, S. Sadagopal, H. Park, R. Pal, S. Kwa, S. Ding, O.O. Yang, G.G. Fouda, R. Le Grand, D. Bolton, M. Esteban, S. Phogat, M. Roederer, R. Amara, L.J. Picker, R.A. Seder, M.J. McElrath, S. Barnett, S.R. Permar, R. Shattock, A.L. DeVico, B.K. Felber, G.N. Pavlakis, G. Pantaleo, B.T. Korber, D.C. Montefiori, G.D. Tomaras. Vaccine Induced Epitope Specific Antibodies to SIVmac239 Envelope Are Distinct from Those Induced to the HIV-1 Envelope in Non-Human Primates. J Virol., 89(16): 8643-50, 2015.
L. Lin, G. Finak, K. Ushey, C. Seshadri, T.R. Hawn, N. Frahm, T.J. Scriba, H. Mahomed, W. Hanekom, P.A. Bart, G. Pantaleo, G.D. Tomaras, S. Rerks-Ngarm, J. Kaewkungwal, S. Nitayaphan, P. Pitisuttithum, N.L. Michael, J.H. Kim, M.L. Robb, R.J. O'Connell, N. Karasavvas, P. Gilbert, S.C. De Rosa, M.J. McElrath, R. Gottardo. COMPASS identifies T-cell subsets correlated with clinical outcomes. Nat Biotechnol., 33(6): 610-6, 2015.
G. Hancock, H. Yang, E. Yorke, E. Wainwright, V. Bourne, A. Frisbee, T.L. Payne, M. Berrong, G. Ferrari, D. Chopera, T. Hanke, B. Mothe, C. Brander, M.J. McElrath, A. McMichael, N. Goonetilleke, G.D. Tomaras, N. Frahm, L. Dorrell. Identification of Effective Subdominant Anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T Cells Within Entire Post-infection and Post-vaccination Immune Responses. PLoS Pathog., 11(2): e1004658, 2015.
W.S. DeWitt, R.O. Emerson, P. Lindau, M. Vignali, T.M. Snyder, C. Desmarais, C. Sanders, H. Utsugi, E.H. Warren, J. McElrath, K.W. Makar, A. Wald, H.S. Robins. Dynamics of the Cytotoxic T Cell Response to a Model of Acute Viral Infection. J Virol., 89(8): 4517-26, 2015.
K.W. Cohen, A.S. Dugast, G. Alter, M.J. McElrath, L. Stamatatos. HIV-1 Single-Stranded RNA Induces CXCL13 Secretion in Human Monocytes via TLR7 Activation and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell-Derived Type I IFN. J Immunol., 194(6): 2769-75, 2015.
F. Hladik, A. Burgener, L. Ballweber, R. Gottardo, L. Vojtech, S. Fourati, J.Y. Dai, M.J. Cameron, J. Strobl, S.M. Hughes, C. Hoesley, P. Andrew, S. Johnson, J. Piper, D.R. Friend, T.B. Ball, R.D. Cranston, K.H. Mayer, M.J. McElrath, I. McGowan. Mucosal effects of tenofovir 1% gel. eLife 4:e04525, 2015.
L.B. Cohn, I.T. Silva, T.Y. Oliveira, R.A. Rosales, E.H. Parrish, G.H. Learn, B.H. Hahn, J.L. Czartoski, M.J. McElrath, C. Lehmann, F. Klein, M. Caskey, B.D. Walker, J.D. Siliciano, R.F.Siliciano, M. Jankovic, M.C. Nussenzweig. HIV-1 Integration Landscape during Latent and Active Infection. Cell, 160(3): 420-32, 2015.
L. Pattacini, P.M. Murnane, J.M. Baeten, T.R. Fluharty, K.K. Thomas, E. Bukusi, E. Katabira, N. Mugo, D. Donnell, J.R. Lingappa, C. Celum, M. Marzinke, M.J. McElrath, J.M. Lund; for the Partners PrEP Study Team. Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Does Not Enhance Immune Responses to HIV in Exposed but Uninfected Persons. J Infect Dis., 211(12):1943-52, 2015.
Y. Huang, S.T. Karuna, H. Janes, N. Frahm, M. Nason, P.T. Edlefsen, J.G. Kublin, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, P.B. Gilbert. Use of placebos in Phase 1 preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. Vaccine, 33(6):749-52, 2015.
G. Moncunill, C. Dobaño, M.J. McElrath, S.C. De Rosa. OMIP-025: Evaluation of human T- and NK-cell responses including memory and follicular helper phenotype by intracellular cytokine staining. Cytometry A, 87(4):289-92, 2015.
E.M. Kahle, M. Bolton, J.P. Hughes, D. Donnell, C. Celum, J.R. Lingappa, A. Ronald, C.R. Cohen, G. de Bruyn, Y. Fong, E. Katabira, M.J. McElrath, J.M. Baeten; the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Plasma cytokine levels and risk of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition: a nested case-control study among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. J Infect Dis., 211(9):1451-60, 2015.
Y. Huang, A. Duerr, N. Frahm, L. Zhang, Z. Moodie, S. De Rosa, M.J. McElrath, P.B. Gilbert. Immune-Correlates Analysis of an HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trial Reveals an Association of Nonspecific Interferon-γ Secretion with Increased HIV-1 Infection Risk: A Cohort-Based Modeling Study. PLoS ONE, 9(11): e108631, 2014.
N. Frahm, B.A. Manso, S.C. De Rosa, C. Ochsenbauer, S. Karuna, M. Sobieszczyk, S. Hammer, E. Swann, B. Graham, P. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath. CD8(+) T-cell Mediated HIV Inhibition after Vaccination with a DNA/Recombinant Ad5 (rAd5) HIV Vaccine Is Similar to that Seen in Treated HIV Infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 30(Suppl 1): A84, 2014.
S. De Rosa, N. Frahm, G. Diaz, P. Newling, D. Morris, C. Morgan, B. Graham, E. Swann, G. Tomaras, J. Maenza, A. Duerr, M.J. McElrath. No Increase in Activated T Cells and Limited Increase in Adenovirus-specific T Cells in Colon and Rectal Mucosa Following HIV-1 DNA/rAd5 Immunization. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 30(Suppl 1): A48, 2014.
A. Heit, F. Schmitz, M. Moore, S. Gerdts, B. Flach, H. Robins, A. Aderem, S. De Rosa, M.J. McElrath. Vaccine Induced Distinct Circulating Memory CD4+ T-cells with T-follicular Helper Cell Commitment in Humans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 30(Suppl 1): A46, 2014.
L. Pattacini, P.M. Murnane, J.M. Baeten, T.R. Fluharty, K.K. Thomas, E. Bukusi, E. Katabira, N. Mugo, D. Donnell, J.R. Lingappa, C. Celum, M. Marzinke, M.J. McElrath, J.M. Lund. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Does Not Enhance HIV-specific T-cell Responses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 30(Suppl 1): A176, 2014.
S.A. Migueles, N. Frahm, S.A. Toulmin, E.P. Kelly, B.A. Peterson, S.A. Johnson, M.J. McElrath, M. Connors. HIV-Specific CD8+ T-cell Expansion Potential, but Not Cytotoxic Capacity, Is Associated with Reduced Set Point Viral Loads in Ad5/HIV Vaccinees. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 30(Suppl 1): A175, 2014.
A. Filali-Mouhim, S. Fourati, F. Lefebvre, R. Thomas, R. Gottardo, N. Frahm, S. De Rosa, P. Wilkinson, P. Stafova, A. Sabnis, J. Kaewkungwal, P. Pitisuttithum, S. Nitayanphan, S. Rerks-Ngarm, N. Michael, J. Kim, M.L. Robb, R.J. O'Connell, M.J. McElrath, M. Cameron, R. Sekaly. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis Reveals Contrasting Role for Innate Immune Response Genes in Conferring Risk of Infection in RV144 Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 30(Suppl 1): A15-16, 2014.
G. Moncunill, H. Han, C. Dobaño, M.J. McElrath, S.C. De Rosa. OMIP-024: Pan-leukocyte immunophenotypic characterization of PBMC subsets in human samples. Cytometry A, 85(12): 995-998, 2014.
S. Frey, L. Peiperl, M.J. McElrath, S. Kalams, P.A. Goepfert, M.C. Keefer, L.R. Baden, M.A. Lally, K. Mayer, W.A. Blattner, C.D. Harro, S.M. Hammer, G.J. Gorse, J. Hural, G.D. Tomaras, Y. Levy, P. Gilbert, A. deCamp, N.D. Russell, M. Elizaga, M. Allen, L. Corey. Phase I/II Randomized Trial of Safety and Immunogenicity of LIPO-5 Alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) Alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) Prime/LIPO-5 Boost in Healthy, HIV-1 Uninfected Adult Participants. Clin Vaccine Immunol., 21(11): 1589-99, 2014.
P-A. Bart, Y. Huang, S.T. Karuna, S. Chappuis, J. Gaillard, N. Kochar, M.A. Allen, S. Ding, J. Hural, H-X. Liao, B.F. Haynes, B.S. Graham, M.J. McElrath, G.D. Tomaras, D.C. Montefiori, G. Pantaleo, N. Frahm, NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. NYVAC is better as a boost than a prime in combination with Ad5 for inducing HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in humans. J Clin Invest., 124(11): 4843-56, 2014.
M.P. Lemos, J.R. Lama, S.T. Karuna, Y. Fong, S.M. Montano, C. Ganoza, R. Gottardo, J. Sanchez, M.J. McElrath. The inner foreskin of healthy men contains increased epithelial CD4+ CCR5+ cells and has features of an inflamed epidermal barrier. PLoS ONE, 9(9): e108954, 2014.
S.S. Li, P.B. Gilbert, G.D. Tomaras, G. Kijak, G. Ferrari, R. Thomas, C.W. Pyo, S. Zolla-Pazner, D. Montefiori, H-X. Liao, G. Nabel, A. Pinter, D.T. Evans, R. Gottardo, J.Y. Dai, H. Janes, D. Morris, Y. Fong, P.T. Edlefsen, F. Li, N. Frahm, M.D. Alpert, H. Prentice, S. Rerks-Ngarm, P. Pitisuttithum, J. Kaewkungwal, S. Nitayaphan, M.L. Robb, R.J. O'Connell, B.F. Haynes, N.L. Michael, J.H. Kim, M.J. McElrath, D.E. Geraghty. FCGR2C polymorphisms associate with HIV-1 vaccine protection in RV144 trial. J Clin Invest., 124(9): 3879-3890, 2014.
K.E. Seaton, L. Ballweber, A. Lan, M. Donathan, S. Hughes, L. Vojtech, M.A. Moody, H-X. Liao, B.F. Haynes, C.G. Galloway, B.A. Richardson, S.A. Karim, C.S. Dezzutti, M.J. McElrath, G.D. Tomaras, F. Hladik. HIV-1 specific IgA detected in vaginal secretions of HIV uninfected women participating in a microbicide trial in Southern Africa are primarily directed toward gp120 and gp140 specificities. PLoS ONE, 9(7): e101863, 2014.
T. Hensley-McBain, A. Heit, S.C. De Rosa, M.J. McElrath, E. Andersen-Nissen. Optimization of a whole blood phenotyping assay for enumeration of peripheral blood leukocyte populations in multicenter clinical trials. J Immunol Methods, 411: 23-36, 2014.
A.J. Gartland, S. Li, J. McNevin, G.D. Tomaras, R. Gottardo, H. Janes, Y. Fong, D. Morris, D.E. Geraghty, G.H. Kijak, P.T. Edlefsen, N. Frahm, B.B. Larsen, S. Tovanabutra, E. Sanders-Buell, A.C. deCamp, C.A. Magaret, H. Ahmed, J.P. Goodridge, L. Chen, P. Konopa, S. Nariya, J.N. Stoddard, K. Wong, H. Zhao, W. Deng, B.S. Maust, M. Bose, S. Howell, A. Bates, M. Lazzaro, A. O'Sullivan, E. Lei, A. Bradfield, G. Ibitamuno, V. Assawadarachai, R.J. O'Connell, M.S. deSouza, S. Nitayaphan, S. Rerks-Ngarm,M.L. Robb, J. Sidney, A. Sette, S. Zolla-Pazner, D. Montefiori, M.J. McElrath, J.I. Mullins, J.H. Kim, P.B. Gilbert, T. Hertz. Analysis of HLAA*02 association with vaccine efficacy in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial. J. Virol., 88(15): 8242-55, 2014.
C. Ducar, D. Smith, C. Pinzon, M. Stirewalt, C. Cooper, M.J. McElrath, J. Hural, the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Benefits of a comprehensive, semi-automated quality program for cryopreserved PBMC covering 28 clinical trials sites. J Immunol Methods, 409: 9-20, 2014.
C.M. Mitchell, L. McLemore, K. Westerberg, R. Astronomo, K. Smythe, C. Gardella, M. Mack, A. Magaret, D. Patton, K. Agnew, M.J. McElrath, F. Hladik, D. Eschenbach. Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells. J Infect Dis., 210(4): 651-655, 2014.
S.H.E. Kaufmann, M.J. McElrath, D.J.M. Lewis, G. Del Giudice. Challenges and responses in human vaccine development. Curr Opin Immunol., 28:18-26, 2014.
P.A. Goepfert, M.L. Elizaga, K.E. Seaton, G.D. Tomaras, D.C. Montefiori, A. Sato, J. Hural, S.C. De Rosa, S.A. Kalams, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Keefer, L.R. Baden, J.R. Lama, J. Sanchez, M.J. Mulligan, S. Buchbinder, S. Hammer, B. Koblin, M. Pensiero, C. Butler, B. Moss, H.L. Robinson, the HVTN 205 Study Group; the NIAID HIV Vaccines Trials Network. Specificity and Six-Month Durability of Immune Responses Induced by DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-like Particles. J Infect Dis., 210(1): 99-110, 2014.
L. Corey, M.J. McElrath. One shot forward for HIV prevention. Nat Med., 20(3): 241-2, 2014.
G.E. Gray, Z. Moodie, B. Metch, P.B. Gilbert, L.G. Bekker, G. Churchyard, M. Nchabeleng, K. Mlisana, F. Laher, S. Roux, K. Mngadi, C. Innes, M. Mathebula, M. Allen, M.J. McElrath, M. Robertson, J. Kublin, L. Corey; HVTN 503/Phambili study team. Recombinant adenovirus type 5 HIV gag/pol/nef vaccine in South Africa: unblinded, long-term follow-up of the phase 2b HVTN 503/Phambili study. Lancet Infect Dis. 14(5): 388-96, 2014.
A.W. Bigham, R.D. Mackelprang, C. Celum, G. De Bruyn, K. Beima-Sofie, G. John-Stewart, A. Ronald, N.R. Mugo, K. Buckingham, M.J. Bamshad, J.I. Mullins, M.J. McElrath, J.R. Lingappa. Variants in Host Viral Replication Cycle Genes Are Associated With Heterosexual HIV-1 Acquisition in Africans. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 66(2): 127-134, 2014.
L.R. McKinnon, S.M. Hughes, S.C. De Rosa, J.A. Martinson, J. Plants, K.E. Brady, P.P. Gumbi, D.J. Adams, L. Vojtech, C.G. Galloway, M. Fialkow, G. Lentz, D. Gao, Z. Shu, B. Nyanga, P. Izulla, J. Kimani, S. Kimwaki, A. Bere, Z. Moodie, A.L. Landay, J.A. Passmore, R. Kaul, R.M. Novak, M.J. McElrath, F. Hladik. Optimizing viable leukocyte sampling from the female genital tract for clinical trials: an international multi-site study. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85675, 2014.
C.K. Slichter, D.P. Friedrich, R.J. Smith, P.N. Walsh, J.L. Czartoski, M.J. McElrath, N. Frahm. Measuring inhibition of HIV replication by ex vivo CD8+ T cells. J Immunol Methods 404:71-80, 2014.
R.D. Mackelprang, A.W. Bigham, C. Celum, G. de Bruyn, K. Beima-Sofie, G. John-Stewart, A. Ronald, N.R. Mugo, K.J. Buckingham, M.J. Bamshad, J.I. Mullins, M.J. McElrath, J.R. Lingappa. Toll-like receptor polymorphism associations with HIV-1 outcomes among Sub-Saharan Africans. J Infect Dis. 209(10):1623-7, 2014.
J. Sunshine, M. Kim, J.M. Carlson, D. Heckerman, J. Czartoski, S.A. Migueles, M.J. McElrath, J.I. Mullins, N. Frahm. Increased sequence coverage through combined targeting of variant and conserved epitopes correlates with control of HIV replication. J Virol. 88(2): 1354-65, 2014.
S.M. Hammer, M.E. Sobieszczyk, H. Janes, S.T. Karuna, M.J. Mulligan, D. Grove, B.A. Koblin, S.P. Buchbinder, M.C. Keefer, G.D. Tomaras, N. Frahm, J. Hural, C. Anude, B.S. Graham, M.E. Enama, E. Adams, E. DeJesus, R.M. Novak, I. Frank, C. Bentley, S. Ramirez, R. Fu, R.A. Koup, J.R. Mascola, G.J. Nabel, D.C. Montefiori, J. Kublin, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, P.B. Gilbert, for the HVTN 505 Study Team. Efficacy Trial of a DNA/rAd5 HIV-1 Preventive Vaccine. New Engl J Med. 369(22): 2083-92, 2013.
L. Pattacini, M.J. Bolton, E.M. Kahle, P.M. Murnane, J.J. Delrow, M.J. McElrath, J. Baeten, J.M. Lund. Differential regulatory T cell activity in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29(10): 1321-29, 2013.
C. Seshadri, M. Shenoy, R.D. Wells, T. Hensley, E. Andersen-Nissen, M.J. McElrath, T-Y. Cheng, D.B. Moody, T.R. Hawn. Human CD1a-deficiency is Common and Genetically Regulated. J Immunol. 191(4):1586-93, 2013.
T. Hertz, H. Ahmed, D.P. Friedrich, D.R. Casimiro, S.G. Self, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, S. Buchbinder, H. Horton, N. Frahm, M.N. Robertson, B.S. Graham, P. Gilbert. HIV-1 Vaccine-Induced T-Cell Reponses Cluster in Epitope Hotspots that Differ from Those Induced in Natural Infection with HIV-1. PLoS Pathog 9(6):e1003404, 2013.
B.F. Haynes, M.J. McElrath. Progress in HIV-1 vaccine development. Curr Opin HIV AIDS, 8(4): 326-32, 2013.
P.N. Walsh, D.P. Friedrich, J.A. Williams, R.J. Smith, T. Stewart, D.K. Carter, M.J. McElrath, N. Frahm; the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Optimization and qualification of a memory B-cell ELISpot for the detection of vaccine-induced memory responses in HIV vaccine trials. J Immunol Methods, 394(1-2): 84-93, 2013.
H. Janes, D.P. Friedrich, A. Krambrink, R.J. Smith, E. Kallas, H. Horton, D.R. Casimiro, M. Carrington, D. Geraghty, P. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath, N. Frahm. Vaccine-induced Gag-specific T cells are associated with reduced viremia after HIV infection. J Infect Dis., 208(8): 1231-39, 2013.
H. Park, L. Adamson, T. Ha, K. Mullen, S.I. Hagen, A. Nogueron, A.W. Sylwester, M.K. Axthelm, A. Legasse, M. Piatak Jr, J.D. Lifson, M.J. McElrath, L.J. Picker, R.A. Seder. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid is the most effective TLR adjuvant for SIV Gag protein-induced T cell responses in nonhuman primates. J Immunol., 190(8): 4103-15, 2013.
M.J. McElrath, K. Smythe, J. Randolph-Habecker, K. Melton, T. Goodpaster, S. Hughes, M. Mack, A. Sato, G. Diaz, G. Steinbach, R. Novak, M. Curlin, J. Lord, J. Maenza, A. Duerr, N. Frahm, F. Hladik; the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Comprehensive assessment of HIV target cells in the distal human gut suggests increasing HIV susceptibility toward the anus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 63(3): 263-71, 2013.
J.G. Kublin, C.A. Morgan, T.A. Day, P.B. Gilbert, S.G. Self, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey. HIV Vaccine Trials Network: activities and achievements of the first decade and beyond. Clin. Investig. (London), 2(3):245-254, 2012.
W.G. Tan, H.T. Jin, E.E. West, P. Penaloza-Macmaster, A. Wieland, M.J. Zilliox, M.J. McElrath, D.H. Barouch, R. Ahmed. Comparative analysis of SIV Gag specific effector and memory CD8 T cells induced by different adenovirus vectors. J. Virol., 87(3):1359-72, 2013.
D.E. Zak, E. Andersen-Nissen, E.R. Peterson, A. Sato, M.K. Hamilton, J. Borgerding, A.T. Krishnamurty, J.T. Chang, D.J. Adams, T.R. Hensley, A.I. Salter, C.A. Morgan, A.C. Duerr, S.C. De Rosa, A. Aderem and M.J. McElrath. Merck Ad5/HIV vaccine induces extensive but transient innate immune activation in humans that predicts peak CD8+ T-cell responses and is attenuated by pre-existing Ad5 immunity. Proc Nat Acad Sci., 109(50):E3503-12, 2012.
D.H. Barouch, J. Liu, L. Peter, P. Abbink, M.J. Iampietro, A. Cheung, G. Alter, A. Chung, A-S. Dugast, N. Frahm, M.J. McElrath, H. Wenschuh, U. Reimer, M.S. Seaman, M.G. Pau, M. Weijtens, J. Goudsmit, S.R. Walsh, R. Dolin, L.R. Baden. Characterization of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Elicited by a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 26 HIV-1 Env Vaccine in Healthy Adults (IPCAVD 001). J Infect Dis., 207(2):248-256, 2013.
D.R. Burton, R. Ahmed, D.H. Barouch, S.T. Butera, S. Crotty, A. Godzik, D.E. Kaufmann, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Nussenzweig, B. Pulendran, C.N. Scanlan, W.R. Schief, G. Silvestri, H. Streeck, B.D. Walker, L.M. Walker, A.B. Ward, I.A. Wilson, R. Wyatt. A Blueprint for HIV Vaccine Discovery. Cell Host Microbe, 12(4):396-407, 2012.
S.C. De Rosa, D.K. Carter, M.J. McElrath. OMIP-014: Validated multi-functional characterization of antigen-specific human T-cells by intracellular cytokine staining. Cytometry Part A, 81(12):1019-21, 2012.
J.C. Reed, B. Molter, C.D. Geary, J. McNevin, J. McElrath, S. Giri, K.C. Klein, J.R. Lingappa. HIV-1 Gag co-opts a cellular complex containing DDX6, a helicase that facilitates capsid assembly. J Cell Biol., 198(3):439-56, 2012.
T.R. Hensley, A.B. Easter, S. Gerdts, S.C. De Rosa, A. Heit, M.J. McElrath, E. Andersen-Nissen. Enumeration of major peripheral blood leukocyte populations for multicenter clinical trials using a whole blood phenotyping assay. J Vis Exp, (67):e4302, 2012.
H. Janes, N. Frahm, A. Decamp, M. Rolland, E. Gabriel, J. Wolfson, T. Hertz, E. Kallas, P. Goepfert, D.P. Friedrich, L. Corey, J.I. Mullins, M.J. McElrath, P. Gilbert. MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef Vaccine-Induced T-Cell Responses Inadequately Predict Distance of Breakthrough HIV-1 Sequences to the Vaccine or Viral Load. PLoS ONE, 7(8):e43396, 2012.
R.D. Mackelprang, J.M. Baeten, D. Donnell, C. Celum, C. Farquhar, G. de Bruyn, M. Essex, M.J. McElrath, E. Nakku-Joloba, J.R. Lingappa; for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1. J Infect Dis., 206(8): 1299-1308, 2012.
B. Doehle, K. Chang, L. Fleming, J. McNevin, F. Hladik, M.J. McElrath, M. Gale Jr. Vpu-deficient HIV strains stimulate innate immune signaling responses in target cells. J Virol., 86(16): 8499-8506, 2012.
L. Pattacini, G.J. Mize, J.B. Graham, T.R. Fluharty, T.M. Graham, K. Lingnau, B. Wizel, B. Perdiguero, M. Esteban, G. Pantaleo, M. Shen, G.A. Spies, M.J. McElrath, J.M. Lund. A novel HIV vaccine adjuvanted by IC31 induces robust and persistent humoral and cellular immunity. PLoS ONE, 7(7): e42163, 2012.
M.J. McElrath and B.D. Walker. Is an HIV vaccine possible? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 60 Suppl 2:S41-43, 2012.
A. Rustagi, B.P. Doehle, M.J. McElrath, M. Gale Jr. Two new monoclonal antibodies for biochemical and flow cytometric analyses of human interferon regulatory factor-3 activation, turnover, and depletion. Methods, in press, 2012.
O.D. Defawe, Y. Fong, M. Pickett, E. Vasilyeva, D.K. Carter, E. Gabriel, N. Frahm, M.J. McElrath, S.C. De Rosa. Optimization and Qualification of a Multiplex Bead Array to Assess Cytokine and Chemokine Production by Vaccine-specific Cells. J Immunol Methods, 382 (1-2): 117-28, 2012.
B. Doehle, K. Chang, A. Rustagi, J. McNevin, M.J. McElrath, M. Gale Jr. Vpu mediates IRF-3 depletion during HIV infection by a lysosomal-dependent mechanism. J Virol., 86(16): 8367-8374, 2012.
B.F. Haynes, P.B. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath, S. Zolla-Pazner, G.D. Tomaras, S.M. Alam, D.T. Evans, D.C. Montefiori, C. Karnasuta, R. Sutthent, H-X. Liao, A.L. DeVico, G.K. Lewis, C. Williams, Y. Fong, H. Janes, A. DeCamp, Y. Huang, M. Rao, E. Billings, N. Karasavvas, M.L. Robb, V. Ngauy, M.S. de Souza, R. Paris, G. Ferrari, R.T. Bailer, K.A. Soderberg, C. Andrews, P.W. Berman, N. Frahm, S.C. De Rosa, M.D. Alpert, N.L. Yates, X. Shen, R.A. Koup, P. Pitisuttithum, J. Kaewkungwal, S. Nitayaphan, S. Rerks-Ngarm, N.L. Michael and J.H. Kim. Immune Correlates Analysis of the ALVAC-AIDSVAX HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trial. N Engl J Med 366(12): 1275-86, 2012.
C. Cheng, L. Wang, J.D.G. Gall, M. Nason, R.M. Schwartz, M.J. McElrath, S.C. De Rosa, J. Hural, L. Corey, S.P. Buchbinder and G.J. Nabel. Decreased Pre-existing Ad5 Capsid and Ad35 Neutralizing Antibodies Increase HIV-1 Infection Risk in the Step Trial Independent of Vaccination. PLoS ONE 7(4): e33969, 2012.
J.R. Lingappa, S. Petrovski, E. Kahle, J. Fellay, K. Shianna, M.J. McElrath, K.K. Thomas, J.M. Baeten, C. Celum, A. Wald, G. de Bruyn, J.I. Mullins, E. Nakku-Joloba, C. Farquhar, M. Essex, D. Donnell, J. Kiarie, B. Haynes, D. Goldstein; for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Genomewide Association Study for Determinants of HIV-1 Acquisition and Viral Set Point in HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples with Quantified Virus Exposure. PLoS ONE 6(12):e28632, 2011.
N. Frahm, A. DeCamp, D.P. Friedrich, D.K. Carter, O.D. Defawe, J. Kublin, D.R. Casimiro, A. Duerr, M.N. Robertson, S. Buchbinder, Y. Huang, G. Spies, S.C. De Rosa and M.J. McElrath. Adenovirus-specific T cells target regions conserved across multiple serotypes and modulate insert-specific immunity following MRKAd5 HIV-1 vaccination. J Clin Immunol. 122(1):359-367, 2012.
E. Andersen-Nissen, A. Heit and M.J. McElrath. Profiling immunity to HIV vaccines with systems biology. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 7(1):32-37, 2012.
L. Ballweber, B. Robinson, A. Kreger, M. Fialkow, G. Lentz, M.J. McElrath and F. Hladik. Vaginal Langerhans cells non-productively transporting HIV-1 mediate infection of T cells. J Virol. 85(24): 13443-13447, 2011.
L.R. Baden, W.A. Blattner, C. Morgan, Y. Huang, O.D. Defawe, M.E. Sobieszczyk, N. Kochar, G.D. Tomaras, M.J. McElrath, N. Russell, K. Brandariz, M. Cardinali, B.S. Graham, D.H. Barouch, R. Dolin and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network 044 Study Team. Timing of Plasmid Cytokine (IL-2/Ig) Administration Affects HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Seronegative Subjects. J. Infect Dis. 204(10): 1541-1549, 2011.
B.A. Koblin, M. Casapia, C. Morgan, L. Qin, Z.M. Wang, O.D. Defawe, L. Baden, P. Goepfert, G.D. Tomaras, D.C. Montefiori, M.J. McElrath, L. Saavedra, C-Y. Lau, B.S. Graham, and The NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV Adenoviral Vector Boost after DNA Plasmid Vaccine Prime by Route of Administration: A Randomized Clinical Trial. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24517, 2011.
S.C. De Rosa, E.P. Thomas, J. Bui, Y. Huang, A. deCamp, C. Morgan, S. Kalams, G.D. Tomaras, R. Akondy, R. Ahmed, C-Y. Lau, B.S. Graham, G.J. Nabel, M.J. McElrath, and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. HIV-DNA priming alters T-cell response to HIV-adenovirus vaccine even when responses to DNA are undetectable. J Immunol. 187(6): 3391-3401, 2011.
F. Li, A.C. Finnefrock, S.A. Dubey, B.T.M. Korber, J. Szinger, S. Cole, M.J. McElrath, J.W. Shiver, D.R. Casimiro, L. Corey and S.G. Self. Mapping HIV-1 Vaccine Induced T-Cell Responses: Bias towards Less-Conserved Regions and Potential Impact on Vaccine Efficacy in the Step Study. PLoS ONE 6(6): e20479, 2011.
S. Elahi, W.L. Dinges, N. Lejarcegui, K.J. Laing, A.C. Collier, D.M. Koelle, M.J. McElrath, and H. Horton. Protective HIV-specific CD8+ T cells evade Treg suppression. Nat Med. 17(8): 989-995, 2011.
D. Friedrich, E. Jalbert, W.L. Dinges, J. Sidney, A. Sette, Y. Huang, M.J. McElrath, and H. Horton. Vaccine-induced HIV-specific CD8+ T cells utilize preferential HLA alleles and target specific regions of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 58(3): 248-252, 2011.
M. Sobieszczyk, J.R. Lingappa and M.J. McElrath. Host genetic polymorphisms associated with innate immune factors and HIV-1. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6(5): 427-434, 2011.
G.J. Churchyard, C. Morgan, E. Adams, J. Hural, B.S. Graham, Z. Moodie, D. Grove, G. Gray, L-G. Bekker, M.J. McElrath, G.D. Tomaras, P. Goepfert, S. Kalams, L. Baden, M. Lally, R. Dolin, W. Blattner, A. Kalichman, J.P. Figueroa, J. Pape, M. Schechter, O. Defawe, S.C. DeRosa, D.C. Montefiori, G.J. Nabel, L. Corey, M.C. Keefer, and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. A Phase IIA Study of Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Prime Followed by Multiclade rAd5 HIV-1 Boost in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial (HVTN204). PLoS ONE 6(8): e21225, 2011.
J.T. Herbeck, M. Rolland, Y. Liu, S. McLaughlin, J. McNevin, H. Zhao, K. Wong, J.N. Stoddard, D. Raugi, S. Sorensen, I. Genowati, B. Birditt, A. McKay, K. Diem, B.S. Maust, W. Deng, A.C. Collier, J.D. Stekler, M.J. McElrath, and J.I. Mullins. Demographic processes affect HIV-1 evolution in primary infection before the onset of selective processes. J. Virol. 85(5): 7523-7534, 2011.
J.S. Pufnock, M. Cigal, L.S. Rolczynski, E. Andersen-Nissen, M.J. McElrath and P.D. Greenberg. Priming CD8+ T-cells with dendritic cells matured using TLR4 and TLR7/8 ligands together enhances generation of CD8+ T-cells retaining CD28. Blood, 117(24): 6542-6551, 2011.
P. Spearman, M.A. Lally, M. Elizaga, D. Montefiori, G.D. Tomaras, M.J. McElrath, J. Hural, S.C. De Rosa, A. Sato, Y. Huang, S.E. Frey, P. Sato, J. Donnelly, S. Barnett, L.J. Corey and the HIV Vaccine Trials Network of NIAID. A Trimeric, V2-Deleted HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies but Limited Breadth of Neutralization in Human Volunteers. J Infect Dis. 203(8): 1165-1173, 2011.
G.E. Gray, M. Allen, Z. Moodie, G. Churchyard, L-G Bekker, M. Nchabeleng, K. Mlisana, B. Metch, G. de Bruyn, M.H. Latka, S. Roux, M. Mathebula, N. Naicker, C. Ducar, D.K. Carter, A. Puren, N. Eaton, M.J. McElrath, M. Robertson, L. Corey and J. Kublin, on behalf of the HVTN 503/Phambili Study Team. Safety and efficacy of the HVTN 503/Phambili Study of a clade-B-based HIV-1 vaccine in South Africa: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled test-of-concept phase 2b study. Lancet Infect Dis. 11(7): 507-515, 2011.
S.A. Migueles, J.E. Rood, A.M. Berkley, T. Guo, D. Mendoza, A. Patamawenu, C.W. Hallahan, N.A. Cogliano, N. Frahm, A. Duerr, M.J. McElrath and M. Connors. Trivalent Adenovirus Type 5 HIV Recombinant Vaccine Primes for Modest Cytotoxic Capacity That Is Greatest in Humans with Protective HLA Class I Alleles. PLoS Pathog. 7(2): e1002002, 2011.
S.O. Pine, J.G. Kublin, S.M. Hammer, J. Borgerding, Y. Huang, D.R. Casimiro and M.J. McElrath. Pre-existing Adenovirus Immunity Modifies a Complex Mixed Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Response to an Ad5/HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate in Humans. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18526, 2011.
M.J. McElrath. Standing guard at the mucosa. Immunity 34(2): 146-148, 2011.
N. Zheng, M.J. McElrath, P.S. Sow, A. Mesher, S.E. Hawes, J. Stern, G.S. Gottlieb, S.C. De Rosa and N.B. Kivat. γδ T cell activation is associated with decrease in CD4+ T cell counts and increase in plasma viral load in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 57(2): 92-100, 2011.
M. Rolland, S. Tovanabutra, A.C. deCamp, N. Frahm, P.B. Gilbert, E. Sanders-Buell, L. Heath, C.A. Magaret, M. Bose, A. Bradfield, A. O'Sullivan, J. Crossler, T. Jones, M. Nau, K. Wong, H. Zhao, D.N. Ragui, S. Sorensen, J.N. Stoddard, B.S. Maust, W. Deng, J. Hural, S. Dubey, N.L. Michael, J. Shiver, L. Corey, F. Li, S.G. Self, J. Kim, S. Buchbinder, D.R. Casimiro, M.N. Robertson, A. Duerr, M.J. McElrath, F.E. McCutchan, and J.I. Mullins. Vaccine-induced changes in breakthrough HIV-1 strains from the Step trial. Nat Med. 17(3): 366-371, 2011.
M.C. Keefer, S.E. Frey, M. Elizaga, B. Metch, S.C. De Rosa, P.F. Barroso, G. Tomaras, M. Cardinali, P. Goepfert, A. Kalichman, V. Philippon, M.J. McElrath, X. Jin, G. Ferrari, O.D. Defawe, G.P. Mazzara, D. Montefiori, M. Pensiero, D.L. Panicali, L. Corey and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. A phase I trial of preventive HIV vaccination with heterologous poxviral-vectors containing matching HIV-1 inserts in healthy HIV-uninfected subjects. Vaccine 29(10): 1948-1958, 2011.
J. Fellay, N. Frahm, K.V. Shianna, E.T. Cirulli, D.R. Casimiro, M.N. Robertson, B.F. Haynes, D.E. Geraghty, M.J. McElrath and D.B. Goldstein. Host genetic determinants of T cell responses to the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine in the Step trial. J Infect Dis. 203(6): 773-779, 2011.
D.K. Gill, Y. Huang, G. Levine, A. Sambor, D.K. Carter, A. Sato, J. Kopycinski, P. Hayes, B. Hahn, J. Birungi, T. Tarragona-Fiol, H. Wan, M. Randles, A. Raxworthy Cooper, A. Ssemaganda, L. Clark, P. Kaleebu, S.G. Self, R. Koup, B. Wood, M.J. McElrath, J.H. Cox, J. Hural and J. Gilmour. Equivalence of ELISpot Assays Demonstrated Between Major HIV Network Laboratories. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14330, 2010.
M.E. Curlin, F. Cassis-Ghavami, A.S. Magaret, G.A. Spies, A. Duerr, C.L. Celum, J.L. Sanchez, J.B. Margolick, R. Detels, M.J. McElrath and L. Corey. Serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 is not associated with risk of HIV infection: a case-control study. AIDS 25(2):153-158, 2011.
Y. Liu, J.P. McNevin, S. Holte, H. Zhao, M.J. McElrath and J.I. Mullins. Dynamics of viral evolution and CTL responses in HIV-1 infection. PLoS ONE 6(1), e15639, 2011.
M. Vaine, S. Wang, Q. Liu, J. Arthos, D. Montefiori, P. Goepfert, M.J. McElrath, and S. Lu. Profiles of Human Serum Antibody Responses Elicited by Three Leading HIV Vaccines Focusing on the Induction of Env-specific Antibodies. PLoS ONE 5(11): e13916, 2010.
The International HIV Controllers Study*. The major genetic determinants influencing HIV-1 control map to discrete amino acids involved in HLA class I peptide presentation. Science 330(6010): 1551-1557, 2010. (*member of the study team cited at the end of the manuscript)
M.J. McElrath and B.F. Haynes. Induction of Long-term Immunity to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 by Vaccination. Immunity 33(4): 542-554, 2010.
L. Peiperl, C. Morgan, Z. Moodie, H. Li, N. Russell, B.S. Graham, G.D. Tomaras, S.C. DeRosa, and M.J. McElrath, for the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. A randomized clinical trial of a recombinant adenovirus type 5 multiclade HIV-1 vaccine in persons without previous vector immunity (HVTN study 054). PLoS ONE 5(10): e13579, 2010.
M.J. McElrath. Immune Responses to HIV Vaccines and Potential Impact on Control of Acute HIV-1 Infection. J Infect Dis. 202 Suppl 2:S323-326, 2010.
B.S. Graham, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Keefer, K. Rybczyk, D. Berger, K.J. Weinhold, J. Ottinger, G. Ferrari, D.C. Montefiori, D. Stablein, C. Smith, R. Ginsburg, J. Eldridge, A. Duerr, P. Fast, and B.F. Haynes for the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Immunization with Cocktail of HIV-Derived Peptides in Montanide ISA-51 is Immunogenic, but Causes Sterile Abscesses and Unacceptable Reactogenicity. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11995, 2010.
B.K. Thielen, J.P. McNevin, M.J. McElrath, B.V.S. Hunt, K.C. Klein, and J.R. Lingappa. Innate Immune Signaling Induces High Levels of Tc-Specific Deaminase Activity in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cells Through Expression of APOBEC3A Isoforms. J Biol Chem. 285(36): 27753-27766, 2010.
L. Corey and M.J. McElrath. HIV vaccines: mosaic approach to virus diversity. Nat Med. 16(3): 268-270, 2010.
C. Celum, A. Wald, J.R. Lingappa, A. Magaret, R.S. Wang, N. Mugo, A. Mujugira, J.M. Baeten, J.I. Mullins, J.P. Hughes, E.A. Bukusi, C.R. Cohen, E. Katabira, A. Ronald, J. Kiarie, C. Farquhar, G-J. Stewart, J. Makhema, M. Essex, E. Were, K.H. Fife, G. de Bruyn, G.E. Gray, J. McIntyre, R. Manongi, S. Kapiga, D. Coetzee, S. Allen, M. Inambao, K. Kayitenkore, E. Karita, W. Kanweka, S. Delany, H. Rees, B. Vwalika,W. Stevens, M.S. Campbell, K.K. Thomas, R.W. Coombs, R. Morrow, W.L.H. Whittington, M.J. McElrath, L. Barnes, R. Ridzon, and L. Corey for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from Persons with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 362(5): 427-439, 2010.
W.L. Dinges, J. Richardt, D. Friedrich, E. Jalbert, Y. Lui, C.E. Stevens, J. Maenza, A.C. Collier, D.E. Geraghty, J. Smith, Z. Moodie, J.I. Mullins, M.J. McElrath, and H. Horton. Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses better define HIV disease progression than HLA genotype. J Virol. 84(9): 4461-4468, 2010.
A. Tjernlund, J. Zhu, K. Laing, K. Diem, D. McDonald, J. Vazquez, J. Cao, C. Ohlen, M.J. McElrath, L.J. Picker, and L. Corey. In situ detection of Gag-specific CD8+ cells in the GI tract of SIV infected Rhesus macaques. Retrovirology, 7:12, 2010.
U. Malhotra, J. Nolin, H. Horton, F. Li, L. Corey, J.I. Mullins, and M.J. McElrath, Functional properties and epitope characteristics of T-cells recognizing natural HIV-1 variants. Vaccine, 12;27(48): 6678-6687, 2009.
Y. Liu, J. McNevin, M. Rolland, H. Zhao, W. Deng, J. Maenza, C.E. Stevens, A.C. Collier, M.J. McElrath, J.I. Mullins. Conserved HIV-1 epitopes continuously elicit subdominant CTL responses. J Infect Dis. 200(12): 1825-1833, 2009.
S.O. Pine, M.J. McElrath, P-Y. Bochud. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 and toll-like receptor 9 influence viral load in a seroincident cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS. 27;23(18): 2387-2395, 2009.
M.J. McElrath, L. Ballweber, A. Terker, A. Kreger, P. Sakchalathorn, B. Robinson, M. Fialkow, G. Lentz, F. Hladik. Ex vivo comparison of microbicide efficacy for preventing HIV-1 genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal cells. Antimicrob Agents in Chemother. 54(2): 763-772, 2010.
C. Cheng, J.G.D. Gall, M. Nason, C.R. King, R.A. Koup, M. Roederer, M.J. McElrath, C.A. Morgan, G. Churchyard, M.C. Keefer, B.S. Graham, and G.J. Nabel. Differential specificity and immunogenicity of adenovirus 5 neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection or immunization. J Virol. 84(1): 630-638, 2010.
B.P. Doehle, F. Hladik, J.P. McNevin, M.J. McElrath, and M. Gale, Jr. HIV-1 mediates global disruption of innate antiviral signaling and immune defenses within infected cells. J Virol 83(20):10395-405, 2009.
Y. Liu, A. Woodward, H. Zhu, T. Andrus, Y. Xu, J. McNevin, J. Lee, J.I. Mullins, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, T. Zhu. Pre-infection HIV-specific CTL failed to prevent HIV-1 infection from strains genetically unrelated to viruses in long term exposed partner. J Virol 83(20):10821-9, 2009.
Y. Liu, J. McNevin, M. Rolland, H. Zhao, W. Deng, J. Maenza, C.E. Stevens, A.C. Collier, M.J. McElrath, J.I. Mullins. Conserved HIV-1 epitopes continuously elicit subdominant CTL responses. J Infect Dis 200(12):1825-33, 2009.
S.O. Pine, M.J. McElrath, P-Y. Bochud. Polymorphisms in TLR4 and TLR9 influence viral load in a sero-incident cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS 23(18):2387-95, 2009.
D.C. Crawford, N. Zheng, E.C. Spellmon, I. Stanaway, M.J. Rieder, D.A. Nickerson, M.J. McElrath, J. Lingappa. An excess of rare genetic variation in ABCE1 among Yorubans and African-American individuals with HIV-1. Genes Immun10(8):715-21, 2009.
L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, J.G. Kublin. Post-step modifications for research on HIV vaccines. AIDS. 23(1): 3-8, 2009.
R.M. Troyer, J.P. McNevin, Y. Liu, R.W. Krizan, A. Abraha, D.M. Tebit, H. Zhao, S. Avila, M.A. Lobritz, M.J. McElrath, J.I. Mullins, E.J. Arts. Variable Fitness Impact of HIV-1 Escape Mutations to Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Response. PLoS Pathogens. 5(4):e1000365, 2009.
P. Spearman, S. Kalams, M. Elizaga, B. Metch, Y. Chiu, M. Allen, K.J. Weinhold, G. Ferrari, S.D. Parker, M.J. McElrath, S.E. Frey, J.D. Fuchs, M.C. Keefer, M.D. Lubeck, M. Egan, R. Braun, J.H. Eldridge, B.F. Haynes, L. Corey. Safety and Immunogenicity of a CTL Multiepitope Peptide Vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a Phase I Trial. Vaccine. 27(2): 243-249, 2009.
S.P. Buchbinder, D.V. Mehrotra, A. Duerr, D.W. Fitzgerald, R. Mogg, D. Li, P.B. Gilbert, J.R. Lama, M. Marmor, C. del Rio, M.J. McElrath, D.R. Casimiro, K.M. Gottesdiener, J.A. Chodakewitz, L. Corey, M.N. Robertson. Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial. Lancet. 372(9653):1881-1893, 2008.
M.J. McElrath, S.C. De Rosa, Z. Moodie, S. Dubey, L. Kierstead, H. Janes, Olivier D. Defawe, D.K. Carter, J. Hural, R. Akondy, S.P. Buchbinder, M.N. Robertson, D.V. Mehrotra, S.G. Self, L.C. Corey, J.W. Shiver, D.R. Casimiro. HIV Vaccine-induced Immunity in the Test-of-Concept Step Study. Lancet. 372(9653):1894-1905, 2008.
N. Shulman, M. Bellew, G. Snelling, D. Carter, Y. Huang, H. Li, S.G. Self, M.J. McElrath, S. C. De Rosa. Development of an Automated Analysis System for Data from Flow Cytometric Intracellular Cytokine Staining Assays from Clinical Vaccine Trials. Cytometry Part A. 73(9):847-856, 2008.
E.C. Speelmon, D. Livingston-Rosanoff, A. Desbien, J. Lee, W.D. Wick, F. Hladik, M.J. McElrath. Impaired Viral Entry Cannot Explain Reduced CD4+ T Cell Susceptibility to HIV-1 in Certain Highly Exposed Individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 23(11): 1415-1427, 2008.
F. Li, D. McKenney, U. Malhotra, C. Crimi, J. Nolin, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, M.J. Newman, S.G. Self. Towards prediction of degenerate CTL epitope recognition. Hum Vaccin. 4(2): 115-121, 2008.
F.H. Priddy, D. Brown, J. Kublin, K. Monahan, D.P. Wright, J. Lalezari, S. Santiago, M. Marmor, M. Lally, R.M. Novak, S.J. Brown, P. Kulkarni, S.A. Dubey, L.S. Kierstead, D.R. Casimiro, R. Mogg, M.J. DiNubile, J.W. Shiver, R.Y. Leavitt, M.N. Robertson, D.V. Mehrotra, E. Quirk for the Merck V520-016 Study Group. Safety and immunogenicity of a replication-incompetent adenovirus type 5 HIV-1 clade B gag/pol/nef vaccine in healthy adults. Clin Infect Dis. 46(11): 1769-1781, 2008.
R.J. Shattock, B.F. Haynes, B. Pulendran, J. Flores, J. Esparza, on behalf of a Working Group convened by the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise. Improving defences at the portal of HIV entry: mucosal and innate immunity. PLoS Med. 5(4): e81, 2008. F. Hladik, M.J. McElrath. Setting the Stage: host invasion by HIV. Nat Rev Immunol. 8(6): 447-457, 2008.
S. De Rosa, M.J. McElrath. T cell responses generated by HIV vaccines in clinical trials. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 3(3): 375-379, 2008. J. Cao, J. McNevin, M. McSweyn, Y. Liu, J.I. Mullins, and M.J. McElrath. Novel cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutation by a three-amino acid-insertion in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p6Pol and p6 Gag late domain associated with drug resistance. J Virol. 82(1): 495-502, 2008.
L. Qin, P.B. Gilbert, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath and S.G. Self. A framework for assessing immunological correlates of protection in vaccine trials. J Infect Dis. 196(9): 1304-12, 2007.
Y. Liu, J. McNevin, H. Zhao, D.M. Tebit, R.M. Troyer, M. McSweyn, A.K. Ghosh, D. Shriner, E.J. Arts, M.J. McElrath and J.I. Mullins. Evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes: fitness-balanced escape. J Virol. 81(22): 12179-12188, 2007.
N.N. Zheng, M.J. McElrath, P-S. Sow, S.E. Hawes, H. Diallo-Agne, J.E. Stern, F. Li, A.L. Mesher, A.D. Robinson, G.S. Gottlieb, Y. Huang, and N.B. Kiviat. Role of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific T-cell immunity in control of dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. J Virol. 81(17): 9061-9071, 2007.
Z. Kraft, N.R. Derby, R.A. McCaffrey, R. Niec, W.M. Blay, N.L. Haigwood, E. Moysi, C.J. Saunders, T. Wrin, C.J. Petropoulos, M.J. McElrath, and L. Stamatatos. Macaques infected with a CCR5-tropic Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) develop broadly reactive anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies. J Virol. 81(12): 6402-6411, 2007.
U. Malhotra, F. Li, J. Nolin, M. Allison, H. Zhao, J.I. Mullins, S. Self, and M.J. McElrath. Enhanced detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef-specific T cells recognizing multiple variants in early HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 81(10): 5225-5237, 2007.
H. Horton, E.P. Thomas, J.A. Stucky, I. Frank, Z. Moodie, Y. Huang, Y-L. Chiu, M.J. McElrath, and S.C. De Rosa. Optimization and validation of an 8-color intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay to quantify antigen-specific T cells induced by vaccination. J Immunol Methods. 323(1): 39-54, 2007.
M. Bull, D. Lee, J. Stucky, Y-L. Chu, A. Rubin, H. Horton, and M.J. McElrath. Defining blood processing parameters for optional detection of cryopreserved antigen-specific responses for HIV vaccine trials. J Immunol Methods. 322(1-2): 57-69, 2007. F. Hladik, P. Sakchalathorn, L. Ballweber, G. Lentz, M. Fialkow, D. Eschenbach and M.J. McElrath. Initial events in establishing vaginal entry and infection by human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Immunity. 26(2): 257-270, 2007.
F. Li, H. Horton, P.B. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, and S.G. Self. HIV-1 CTL-based vaccine immunogen selection: antigen diversity and cellular response features. Curr HIV Res. 5(1): 95-105, 2007.
N.D. Russell, B.S. Graham, M.C. Keefer, M.J. McElrath, S.G. Self, K.J. Weinhold, D.C. Montefiori, G. Ferrari, H. Horton, G.D. Tomaras, S. Gurunathan, L. Baglyos, S.E. Frey, M.J. Mulligan, C.D. Harro, S.P. Buchbinder, L.R. Baden, W.A. Blattner, B.A. Koblin, L. Corey, and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Phase 2 study of an HIV-1 canarypox vaccine (vCP1452), alone and in combination with rgp120: negative results fail to trigger a phase 3 correlates trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 44(2): 203-212, 2007. P.A. Goepfert, G.D. Tomaras, H. Horton, D. Motefiori, G. Ferrari, M. Deers, G. Voss, M. Koutsoukos, L. Pedneault, P. Vandepapeliere, M.J. McElrath, P. Spearman, J.D. Fuchs, B.A. Koblin, W.A. Blattner, S. Frey, L.R. Baden, C. Harro, T. Evans, and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Durable HIV-1 antibody and T-cell responses elicited by an adjuvanted multi-protein recombinant vaccine in uninfected human volunteers. Vaccine. 25(3): 510-518, 2007.
U. Malhotra, J. Nolin, J.I. Mullins, and M.J. McElrath. Comprehensive epitope analysis of cross-clade Gag-specific T-cell responses in individuals with early HIV-1 infection in the US epidemic. Vaccine. 25(2): 381-390, 2007.
F. Li, U. Malhotra, P.B. Gilbert, N.R. Hawkins, A.C. Duerr, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, and S.G. Self. Peptide selection for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CTL-based vaccine evaluation. Vaccine. 24(47-48): 6893-6904, 2006.
H. Horton, I. Frank, R. Baydo, E. Jalbert, J. Penn, S. Wilson, J.P. McNevin, M.D. McSweyn, D. Lee, Y. Huang, S.C. De Rosa, and M.J. McElrath. Preservation of T cell proliferation restricted by protective HLA alleles is critical for immune control of HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 177(10): 7406-7415, 2006.
Y. Liu, J. McNevin, J. Cao, H. Zhao, I. Genowati, K. Wong, S. McLaughlin, M.D. McSweyn, K. Diem, C.E. Stevens, J. Maenza, H. He, D.C. Nickle, D. Shriner, S.E. Holte, A.C. Collier, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath and J.I. Mullins. Selection on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteome following primary infection. J Virol. 80(19): 9519-9529, 2006.
H. Horton, C. Havenar-Daughton, D. Lee, E. Moore, J. Cao, J. McNevin, T. Andrus, H. Zhu, A. Rubin, T. Zhu, C. Celum and M.J. McElrath. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses in HIV vaccine trial participants who subsequently acquire HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 80(19): 9779-9788, 2006.
J. Yu, H. Chen, H. Horton, A. Bansal, M.J. McElrath, R. Reichman, P. Goepfert, and X. Jin. Interleukin-2 reconstitutes defective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific CD8+ T cell proliferation in HIV infection. J Med Virol. 78(9): 1147-1157. 2006.
J. Stekler, J. Maenza, C. Stevens, S. Holte, U. Malhotra, J. McElrath, L. Corey, and A.C. Collier. Abacavir hypersensitivity reaction in primary HIV infection. AIDS. 20(9): 1269-1274, 2006.
E.C. Speelmon, D. Livingston-Rosanoff, S.S. Li, Q. Vu, J. Bui, D.E. Geraghty, L.P. Zhao, and M.J. McElrath. Genetic association of the antiviral restriction factor TRIM5? with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 80(5): 2463-2471, 2006.
U. Malhotra, C. Huntsberry, S. Holte, J. Lee, L. Corey, and M.J. McElrath. CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire perturbations in HIV-1 infection: association with plasma viremia and disease progression. Clin Immunol. 119(1): 95-102, 2006.
H. Liu, M. Carrington, C. Wang, S. Holte, J. Lee, B. Greene, F. Hladik, D.M. Koelle, A. Wald, K. Kurosawa, C.R. Rinaldo, C. Celum, R. Detels, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, and T. Zhu. Repeat-region polymorphisms in the gene for the dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin-related molecule: effects on HIV susceptibility. J Infect Dis. 193(5): 698-702, 2006.
P.A. Goepfert, H. Horton, M.J. McElrath, S. Gurunathan, G. Ferrari, G.D. Tomaras, D.C. Montefiori, M. Allen, Y-L. Chiu, P. Spearman, J.D. Fuchs, B.A. Koblin, W.A. Blattner, S. Frey, M.C. Keefer, L.R. Baden, L. Corey, and the NIAID HIV Vaccine Trials Network. High-dose recombinant canarypox vaccine expressing human HIV-1 protein, in seronegative human subjects. J Infect Dis. 192(7): 1249-59, 2005.
F. Hladik, H. Liu, E. Speelmon, D. Livingston-Rosanoff, S. Wilson, P. Sakchalathorn, Y. Hwangbo, B. Greene, T. Zhu, and M.J. McElrath. Combined effect of CCR5-?32 heterozygosity and CCR5 promoter polymorphism -2459 A/G on CCR5 expression and resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Virol. 79(18): 11677-11684, 2005.
H. Liu, F. Hladik, T. Andrus, P. Sakchalathorn, G.M. Lentz, M.F. Fialkow, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, and T. Zhu. Most DC-SIGNR transcripts at mucosal HIV transmission sites are alternatively spliced isoforms. Eur J of Hum Genet. 13(6): 707-715, 2005.
N.N. Zheng, N.B. Kiviat, P.S. Sow, S.E. Hawes, A. Wilson, H. Diallo-Agne, C.W. Critchlow, G.S. Gottlieb, L. Musey, and M.J. McElrath. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific T-cell responses in HIV-1- and HIV-2- infected individuals in Senegal. J Virol. 78(24): 13934-13942, 2004.
D.C. Montefiori, B. Metch, M.J. McElrath, S. Self, K.J. Weinhold, and L. Corey for the HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Demographic factors that influence the neutralizing antibody response in recipients of recombinant HIV-1 gp120 vaccines. J Infect Dis. 190(11): 1962-1969, 2004.
H. Horton, N. Russell, E. Moore, I. Frank, R. Baydo, C. Havenar-Daughton, D. Lee, M. Deers, M. Hudgens, K. Weinhold, and M.J. McElrath. Correlation between interferon-? secretion with cytotoxicity, in virus-specific memory T cells. J Infect Dis. 190(9): 1692-1696, 2004.
U. Malhotra, R.J. Bosch, R.J. Wang, A. Collier, and M.J. McElrath. Effect of adjunct hydroxyurea on helper T cell immunity in HIV type-1 infected patients with virological suppression. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 20(8): 807-812, 2004.
H. Liu, Y. Hwangbo, S. Holte, J. Lee, C. Wang, N. Kaupp, H. Zhu, C. Celum, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, and T. Zhu. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in CCR5, CCR2, stromal cell-derived factor-1, RANTES, and dendritic cell-specific intercellurlar adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin in seronegative individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 190(6): 1055-1058, 2004.
D. Lee, B.S. Graham, Y-L. Chiu, P.B. Gilbert, M.J. McElrath, R.B. Belshe, S.P. Buchbinder, H.W. Sheppard, B.A. Koblin, K.H. Mayer, M.C. Keefer, M.J. Mulligan, and C.L. Celum. Breakthrough infections during phase 1 and 2 prime-boost HIV-1 vaccine trials with canraypox vectors (ALVAC) and booster dose of recombinant gp120 or gp160. J Infect Dis. 190(5): 903-907, 2004.
G. Ferrari, W. Neal, J. Ottinger, A.M. Jones, B.H. Edwards, P. Goepfert, M.R. Betts, R.A. Koup, S. Buchbinder, M.J. McElrath, J. Tartaglia, and K.J. Weinhold. Absence of immunodominant anti-gag p17 (SL9) responses among gag CTL-positive, HIV-uninfected vaccine recipients expressing the HLA-A*0201 allele. J Immunol. 173(3): 2126-2133, 2004.
M.G. Hudgens, S.G. Self, Y-L. Chiu, N.D. Russell, Helen Horton, and M.J. McElrath. Statistical considerations for the design and analysis of the ELISpot assay in HIV-1 vaccine trials. J Immunol Methods. 288(1-2): 19-34, 2004.
P.F. Wright, J. Mestecky, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Keefer, G.J. Gorse, P.A. Goepfert, Z. Moldoveanu, D. Schwartz, P.W. Spearman, R. El Habib, M.D. Spring, Y. Zhu, C. Smith, J. Flores, K.J. Weinhold, and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Comparison of systemic and mucosal delivery of 2 canarypox virus vaccines expressing either HIV-1 genes or the gene for rabies G protein. J Infect Dis. 189(7): 1221-1231, 2004.
U. Malhotra, R.J. Bosch, E. Chan, R. Wang, M.A. Fischl, A.C. Collier, and M.J. McElrath. Association of T cell proliferative responses and phenotype with virus control in chronic progressive HIV-1 disease. J Infect Dis. 189(3): 515-519, 2004.
H.M. Lederman, P.L. Williams, J.W. Wu, T.G. Evans, S.E. Cohn, J.A. McCutchan, S.L. Koletar, R. Hafner, E. Connick, F.T. Valentine, M.J. McElrath, N.J. Roberts, Jr., J.S. Currier for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 889 Study Team. Incomplete immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with severe CD4+ depletion. J Infect Dis. 188(12): 1794-1803, 2003.
A. Ali, S. Pillai, H. Ng, R. Lubong, D.D. Richman, B.D. Jamieson, Y. Ding, M.J. McElrath, J.C., Guatelli, and O.O. Yang. Broadly increased sensitivity to cytotoxic T lymphocytes resulting from Nef escape mutations. J Immunol. 171(8): 3999-4005, 2003.
J. Cao, J. McNevin, U. Malhotra, and M.J. McElrath. Evolution of CD8+ T cell immunity and viral escape following acute HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 171(7): 3837-3846, 2003.
C. Morishima, L. Musey, M. Elizaga, K. Gaba, M. Allison, R.L. Carithers, D.R. Gretch, and M.J. McElrath. Hepatitis C virus-specific cytolytic T cell responses after antiviral therapy. Clin Immunol. 108(3): 211-220, 2003.
F. Hladik, A. Desbien, J. Lang, L. Wang, Y. Ding, S. Holte, A. Wilson, Y. Xu, M. Moerbe, S. Schmechel, and M.J. McElrath. Most highly exposed seronegative men lack HIV-1-specific IFN- -secreting T cells. J Immunol. 171(5): 2671-2683, 2003.
L. Musey, Y. Ding, M. Elizaga, R. Ha, C. Celum, and M.J. McElrath. HIV-1 vaccination administered intramuscularly can induce both systemic and mucosal T cell immunity in HIV-1 infected individuals. J Immunol. 171(2): 1094-1101, 2003.
J. Cao, J. McNevin, S. Holte, L. Fink, L. Corey, and M.J. McElrath. Comprehensive analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific gamma interferon-secreting CD8+ T cells in primary HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 77(12): 6867-6878, 2003.
T. Zhu, L. Corey, Y. Hwangbo, J.M. Lee, G.H. Learn, J.I. Mullins, and M.J. McElrath. Persistence of extraordinarily low levels of genetically homogeneous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in exposed seronegative individuals. J Virol. 77(11): 6108-6116, 2003.
U. Malhotra, S. Holte, T. Zhu, E. Delpit, C. Huntsberry, A. Sette, R. Shankarappa, J. Maenza, L. Corey, and M.J. McElrath. Early induction and maintenance of env-specific T-helper cells following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 77(4): 2663-2674, 2003.
N.D. Russell, M.G. Hudgens, R. Ha, C. Havenar-Daughton, and M.J. McElrath. Moving to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine efficacy trials: defining T cell responses as potential correlates of immunity. J Infect Dis. 187(2): 226-242, 2003.
L. Musey, Y. Ding, J. Cao, J. Lee, C. Galloway, A. Yuen, K.R. Jerome and M.J. McElrath. Ontogeny and specificities of mucosal and blood human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol. 77(1): 291-300, 2003.
M.L. Elizaga and M.J. McElrath. Progress in the development of a preventive HIV-1 vaccine. Clin Lab Med. 22(4): 963-980, 2002.
K. Gupta, M. Hudgens, L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, K. Weinhold, D.C. Montefiori, G.J. Gorse, S.E. Frey, M.C. Keefer, T.G. Evans, R. Dolin, D.H. Schwartz, C. Harro, B. Graham, P.W. Spearman, M. Mulligan, P. Goepfert and the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Safety and immunogenicity of a high-titered canarypox vaccine in combination with rgp120 in a diverse population of HIV-1-uninfected adults: AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group Protocol 022A. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 29(3): 254-261, 2002
G. Ferrari, W. Neal, A. Jones, N. Olender, J. Ottinger, R. Ha, M.J. McElrath, P. Goepfert, and K.J. Weinhold. CD8 CTL responses in vaccinees: emerging patterns of HLA restriction and epitope recognition. Immunol Lett. 79(1-2): 37-45, 2001.
S.C. Schmechel, N. Russell, F. Hladik, J. Lang, A. Wilson, R. Ha, A. Desbien, and M.J. McElrath. Immune defense against HIV-1 infection in HIV-1 exposed seronegative persons. Immunol Lett. 79(1-2): 21-27, 2001.
H.D. White, L.K. Musey, M-M. Andrews, G.R. Yeaman, L.R. DeMars, P.D. Manganiello, A.L. Howell, C.R. Wira, W.R. Green, and M.J. McElrath. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-specific and CD3-redirected cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in the human female reproductive tract: lack of correlation between mucosa and peripheral blood. J Infect Dis. 183(6): 977-983, 2001.
T.G. Evans, M.J. McElrath, T. Matthews, D. Montefiori, K. Weinhold, M. Wolff, M.C. Keefer, E.G. Kallas, L. Corey, G.J. Gorse, R. Belshe, B.S. Graham, P.W. Spearman, D. Schwartz, M.J. Mulligan, P. Goepfert, P. Fast, P. Berman, M. Powell, D. Francis, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. QS-21 promotes an adjuvant effect allowing for reduced antigen dose during HIV-1 envelope subunit immunization in humans. Vaccine. 19(15-16): 2080-2091, 2001.
F. Hladik, S. Bender, R.E. Akridge, Y.X. Hu, C. Galloway, D. Francis, and M.J. McElrath. Recombinant HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 induces distinct types of delayed hypersensitivity in persons with or without pre-existing immunologic memory. J Immunol. 166(5): 3580-3588, 2001.
A. Seth, J. Markee, A. Hoering, A. Sevin, D.E. Sebath, J.E. Schmitz, M.J. Kuroda, M.A. Lifton, M.S. Hirsch, A.C. Collier, N.L. Letvin, and M.J. McElrath. Alterations in T cell phenotype and human immunodeficiency virus type-1-specific cytotoxicity after potent anti-retroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 183(4): 722-729, 2001.
U. Malhotra, S. Holte, S. Dutta, M.M. Berrey, E. Delpit, D.M. Koelle, A. Sette, L. Corey and M.J. McElrath. Role for HLA class II molecules in HIV-1 suppression and cellular immunity following antiretroviral treatment. J Clin Invest. 107(4): 505-517, 2001.
R.T. Schooley, C. Spino, D. Kuritzkes, B.D. Walker, F.T. Valentine, M.S. Hirsch, E. Cooney, G. Friedland, S. Kundu, T.C. Merigan, Jr., M.J. McElrath, A. Collier, S. Plaeger R. Mitsuyasu, J. Kahn, P. Haslett, P. Uherova, V. deGruttola, S. Chiu, B. Zhang, G. Jones, D. Bell, N. Ketter, T. Twadell, D. Chernoff, M. Rosandich, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 209 and 214 Study Teams. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214. J Infect Dis. 182(5): 1357-1364, 2000.
M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, D. Montefiori, M. Wolff, D. Schwartz, M. Keefer, R. Belshe, B.S. Graham, T. Matthews, P. Wright, G. Gorse, R. Dolin, P. Berman, D. Francis, A-M. Duliege, D. Bolognesi, D. Stablein, N. Ketter, P. Fast, and the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. A phase II study of two HIV type 1 envelope vaccines, comparing their immunogenicity in population at risk for acquiring HIV type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 16(9): 907-919, 2000.
U. Malhotra, M.M. Berrey, Y. Huang, J. Markee, D.J. Brown, Sophe Ap, L. Musey, T. Schacker, L. Corey, and M. J. McElrath. Effect of combination antiretroviral therapy on T-cell immunity in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Infect Dis. 181(1): 121-131, 2000.
P.F. Wright, J.S. Lambert, G.J. Gorse, R-H. Hsieh, M.J. McElrath, K. Weinhold, D.W. Wara, E.L. Anderson, M.C. Keefer, S. Jackson, L.J. Wagner, D.P. Francis, P.E. Fast, J. McNamara, and the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Immunization with envelope MN rgp120 vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. J Infect Dis. 180(4): 1080-1088, 1999.
F. Hladik, G. Lentz, E. Delpit, A. McElroy, and M.J. McElrath. Coexpression of CCR5 and IL-2 in human genital but not blood T cells: Implications for the ontogeny of the CCR5+ TH1 phenotype. J Immunol. 163(4): 2306-2313, 1999.
T.G. Evans, M.C. Keefer, K.J. Weinhold, M. Wolff, D. Montefiori, G.J. Gorse, B.S. Graham, M.J. McElrath. A canarypox vaccine expressing multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genes given alone or with rgp 120 elicits broad and durable CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in seronegative volunteers. J Infect Dis. 180(2): 290-298, 1999.
L.K. Musey, J.N. Krieger, J.P. Hughes, T.W. Schacker, L. Corey, and M.J. McElrath. Early and persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T helper dysfunction in blood and lymph nodes following acute HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 180(2): 278-284, 1999.
F. Hladik, G. Lentz, R.E. Akridge, G. Peterson, H. Kelley, A. McElroy, and M.J. McElrath. Dendritic cell-T-cell interactions support coreceptor-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in the human genital tract. J Virol. 73(7): 5833-5842, 1999. R. Akridge, F. Hladik, J. Markee, C. Alef, H. Kelley, A. Collier, and M.J. McElrath. Cellular immunity and target cell susceptibility in persons with repeated HIV-1 exposure. Immunol Lett. 66(1-3): 15-19, 1999.
W.C. Goh, J. Markee, R. Akridge, M. Meldorf, L. Musey, T. Karchmer, M. Krone, A. Collier, L. Corey, M. Emerman, and M.J. McElrath. Protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in persons with repeated exposure: Evidence for T cell immunity in the absence of inherited CCR5 coreceptor defects. J Infect Dis. 179(3): 548-557, 1999.
G.J. Gorse, L. Corey, G.B. Patel, M. Mandava, R-H. Hsieh, T.J. Matthews, M.C. Walker, M.J. McElrath, P.W. Berman, M.M. Eibl, R.B. Belshe and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. HIV-1MN recombinant gp160 vaccine-induced cellular and humoral immunity boosted by HIV-1MN recombinant gp120 vaccine. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 15(2): 115-132, 1999.
A. Sheon, A.L. Wagner, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Keefer, E. Zimmerman, H. Israel, D. Berger, and P. Fast. Preventing discrimination against volunteers in prophylactic HIV vaccine trials: Lessons from a phase II trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 19(5): 519-526, 1998.
R.P. Johnson, R.F. Siliciano, and M. J. McElrath. Cellular immune responses to HIV-1. AIDS. 12(Suppl A): S113-120, 1998.
M.L. Clements-Mann, K. Weinhold, T. Matthews, B.S. Graham, G.J. Gorse, M.C. Keefer, M.J. McElrath, R-H. Hsieh, J. Mestecky, S. Zolla-Pazner, J. Mascola, D. Schwartz, R. Silicino, L. Corey, P.F. Wright, R. Bleshe, R. Dolin, S. Jackson, S. Xu, P. Fast, M.C. Walker, D. Stablein, J-L. Excler, J. Tartaglia, A-M. Duliege, F. Sinangil, E. Paoletti, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 induced by carnarypox expressing HIV-1 mn gp120, HIV-1 SF2 recombinant gp120, or both vaccines in seronegative adults. J Infect Dis. 177(5): 1230-1246, 1998.
M.J. McElrath, J. Hughes, and L. Musey. Correlation of envelope-specific cytotoxic T cell responses during early HIV-1 infection with viral load and disease progression. [Letter]. N Engl J Med. 338(18): 622-623, 1998.
B. Graham, M.J. McElrath, R.I. Connor, D.H. Schwartz, G.J. Gorse, M.C. Keefer, M.J. Mulligan, T.J. Matthews, S.M. Wolinsky, D.C. Montefiori, S.H. Vermund, J.S. Lambert, L. Corey, R.B. Belshe, R. Dolin, P.F. Wright, B.T. Korber, M.C. Wolff, P.E. Fast, the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Analysis of intercurrent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections in phase I and II trials of candidate AIDS vaccines. J Infect Dis. 177(2): 310-319, 1998.
L. Corey, M.J. McElrath, K. Weinhold, T. Matthews, D. Stablein, B. Graham, M. Keefer, D. Schwartz, G. Gorse, and the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Cytotoxic T cell and neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 envelope with a combination vaccine regimen. J Infect Dis. 177(2): 301-309, 1998.
G. Gorse, M J. McElrath, T.J. Matthews, R-H. Hsieh, R.B. Belshe, L. Corey, S.E. Frey, D.J. Kennedy, M.C. Walker, M.M. Eibl and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Modulation of immunologic responses to HIV-1MN recombinant gp160 vaccine by dose and schedule of administration. Vaccine. 16(5): 493-506, 1998. L. Musey, J. Hughes, T. Schacker, T. Shea, L. Corey, and M.J. McElrath. Cytotoxic T-cell responses, viral load, and disease progression in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 337(18): 1267-1274, 1997.
M.C. Keefer, M. Wolff, G.J. Gorse, B.S. Graham, L. Corey, M.L. Clements-Mann, N. Verani-Ketter, S. Erb, C.M. Smith, R. Belshe, L.J. Wagner, M.J. McElrath, D.H. Schwartz, P. Fast, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Safety Profile of Phase I and II Preventive HIV Type 1 Envelope Vaccination: Experience of the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 13(14): 1163-1177, 1997. S-L. Liu, T. Schacker, L. Musey, D. Shriner, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, and J.I. Mullins. Divergent patterns of progression to AIDS after infection from the same source: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution and antiviral responses. J Virol. 71(6): 4284-4295, 1997.
S. Zolla-Pazner, C. Alving, R. Belshe, P. Berman, S. Burda, P. Chigurupati, M.L. Clements, A-M. Duliege, J-L. Excler, C. Hioe, J. Kahn, M.J. McElrath, S. Sharpe, F. Sinangil, K. Steimer, M.C. Walker, N. Wassef, and S. Xu. Neutralization of a Clade B primary isolate by sera from human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected recipients of candidate AIDS vaccines. J Infect Dis. 175(4): 764-774, 1997.
G. Ferrari, W. Humphrey, M.J. McElrath, J-L. Excler, A-M. Duliege, M.L. Clements, L.C. Corey, D.P. Bolognesi, and K.J. Weinhold. Clade B-based HIV-1 vaccines elicit cross-clade cytotoxic T lymphocyte reactivities in uninfected volunteers. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 94(4): 1396-1401, 1997.
L. Musey, Y. Hu, L. Eckert, M. Christensen, T. Karchmer, and M.J. McElrath. HIV-1 induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the cervix of infected women. J Exp Med. 185(2): 293-303, 1997.
M. J. McElrath, R.F. Siliciano, and K.J. Weinhold. HIV type 1 vaccine-induced cytotoxic T cell responses in phase 1 clinical trials: Detection, characterization, and quantitation. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 13(3): 211-216, 1997.
S.J. Kent, P.D. Greenberg, M.C. Hoffman, R.E. Akridge, and M.J. McElrath. Antagonism of vaccine-induced HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells by primary HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 158(2): 807-815, 1997.
G.L. Ada and M.J. McElrath. HIV type 1 vaccine-induced cytotoxic T cell responses: potential role in vaccine efficacy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 13(3): 205-210, 1997.
W.B. Paxton, R.W. Coombs, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Keefer, J. Hughes, F. Sinangil, D. Chernoff, L. Demeter, B. Williams, and L. Corey for the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Longitudinal analysis of quantitative virologic measures in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects with ? than 400 CD4 lymphocytes: Implications for applying measurements to individual patients. J Infect Dis. 175(2): 247-254, 1997.
B.S. Graham, M.C. Keefer, M.J. McElrath, G.J. Gorse, D.H. Schwartz, K. Weinhold, T.J. Matthews, P.F. Wright, R. Dolin, L. Corey, R.B. Belshe, M.L. Clements, D.P. Bolognesi, D.M. Stablein, J.R. Esterlitz, D. Chernoff, F. Sinangil, P.E. Fast, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine in healthy adults: Recombinant glycoprotein (rgp) 120. Ann Int Med. 125(4): 270-279, 1996.
M.C. Keefer, B.S. Graham, M J. McElrath, T.J. Matthews, D.M. Stablein, L. Corey, P.F. Wright, D. Lawrence, P.E. Fast, K. Weinhold, R-H. Hsieh, D. Chernoff, C. Dekker, R. Dolin, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Safety and immunogenicity of env 2-3, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 candidate vaccine, in combination with a novel adjuvant, MTP-PE/MF59. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 12(8): 683-693, 1996.
M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, P.D. Greenberg, T.J. Matthews, D.C. Montefiori, L. Rowen, L. Hood, and J.I. Mullins. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection despite prior immunization with a recombinant envelope vaccine regimen. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 93(9): 3972-3977, 1996.
J.R. Mascola, S.W. Snyder, O.S. Weislow, S.M. Belay, R.B. Belshe, D.H. Schwartz, M.L. Clements, R. Dolin, B.S. Graham, G.J. Gorse, M.C. Keefer, M.J. McElrath, M.C. Walker, K.F. Wagner, J.G. McNeil, F.E. McCutchan, and D.S. Burke; for the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group. Immunization with envelope subunit vaccine products elicits neutralizing antibodies against laboratory-adapted but not primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 173(2): 340-348, 1996.
M.J. McElrath. Selection of potent immunological adjuvants for vaccine construction. Semin Cancer Biol. 6(6): 375-385, 1995.
S.J. Kent, L. Corey, M.B. Agy, W.R. Morton, M.J. McElrath, and P.D. Greenberg. Cytotoxic and proliferative T cell responses in HIV-1 infected Macaca nemestrina. J Clin Invest. 95(1): 248-256, 1995.
M.C. Keefer, R. Belshe, B. Graham, J. McElrath, M.L. Clements, R. Sposto, P. Fast. Safety profile of HIV vaccination: first 1000 volunteers of AIDS vaccine evaluation group. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 10 (Suppl 2): S139-140, 1994.
R.B. Belshe, M.L. Clements, M.C. Keefer, B.S. Graham, L. Corey, R. Sposto, S. Wescott, D. Lawrence, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group Network. Interpreting HIV serodiagnostic test results in the 1990s: Social risks of HIV vaccine studies in uninfected volunteers. Ann Intern Med. 121(8): 584-589, 1994.
B.S. Graham, G.J. Gorse, D.H. Schwartz, M.C. Keefer, M.J. McElrath, T.J. Matthews, P.F. Wright, R.B. Belshe, M.L. Clements, R. Dolin, L. Corey, D.P. Bolognesi, D.M. Stablein, J.R. Esterlitz, S-L Hu, G.E. Smith., and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network. Determinants of antibody response after recombinant gp160 boosting in vaccinia-naive volunteers primed with gp160-recombinant vaccinia. J Infect Dis. 170(4): 782-786, 1994.
M.C. Keefer, B.S. Graham, R.B. Belshe, D. Schwartz, L. Corey, D.P. Bolognesi, D.M. Stablein, D.C. Montefiori, M.J. McElrath, M.L. Clements, G.J. Gorse, P.F. Wright, T.J. Matthews, G.E. Smith, D. Lawrence, R. Dolin, and the AIDS Vaccine clinical Trials Network. Studies of high doses of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant glycoprotein160 candidate vaccine in HIV type 1-seronegative humans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 10(12): 1713-1723, 1994.
M.J. McElrath, M. Rabin, M. Hoffman, S. Klucking, J.V. Garcia, and P.D. Greenberg. Evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses utilizing B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transduced with the CD4 gene and infected with HIV-1. J Virol. 68(8): 5074-5083, 1994.
M.J. McElrath, M. Hoffman, S. Klucking, L. Corey, and P.D. Greenberg. HIV-infected macrophages as efficient stimulator cells for detection of cytotoxic T cell responses to HIV in seronegative and seropositive vaccine recipients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses.10(5): 541-549, 1994.
M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, and P.D. Greenberg. Evaluation of cytotoxic T cell responses to candidate HIV-1 vaccines in HIV-1-uninfected individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 10(Suppl 2): S69-S72, 1994.
M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, D. Berger, M.C. Hoffman, S. Klucking, J. Dragavon, E. Peterson, and P.D. Greenberg. Immune responses elicited by recombinant vaccinia-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope and HIV envelope protein: Analysis of the durability of responses and effect of repeated boosting. J Infect Dis. 169(1): 41-47, 1994.
O.A. Mohamed, R. Ashley, A. Goldstein, M.J. McElrath, J. Dalessio, and L. Corey. Detection of rectal antibodies to HIV-1 by a sensitive chemiluminescent western blot immunodetection method. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 7(4): 375-380, 1994.
R.B. Belshe, M.L. Clements, R. Dolin, B.S. Graham, M. J. McElrath, G.J. Gorse, D. Schwartz, M.C. Keefer, P. Wright, L. Corey, D.P. Bolognesi, T.J. Matthews, D.M. Stablein, F.S. O'Brien, M. Eibl, F. Dorner, W. Koff, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group Network. Safety and immunogenicity of a fully glycosylated recombinant gp160 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine in subjects at low risk of infection. J Infect Dis. 168(6): 1387-1395, 1993.
E.L. Cooney, M.J. McElrath, L. Corey, S.L. Hu, A.C. Collier, D. Arditti, M. Hoffman, R.W. Coombs, G.E. Smith, and P.D. Greenberg. Enhanced immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope elicited by a combined vaccine regimen consisting of priming with a vaccinia recombinant expressing HIV envelope and boosting with gp160 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 90(5): 1882-1886, 1993. K.J. Weinhold, J. Tartaglia, E. Paoletti, B. Graham, D. Schwartz, M.J. McElrath, N. Roberts, and G. Gorse. Specific activation strategies for amplification of low CTL signals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 8(8): 1373, 1992.
M.J. McElrath, R.M. Steinman, and Z.A. Cohn. Latent HIV-1 infection in enriched populations of blood monocytes and T cells from seropositive patients. J Clin Invest. 87(1): 27-30, 1991.
K.E. Squires, M. Kirsch, S.C. Silverstein, A. Acosta, M.J. McElrath, and H.W. Murray. Defect in the tissue cellular immune response: Experimental visceral leishmaniasis in euthymic C57BL/6-ep/ep mice. Infect Immun. 58(12): 3893-3898, 1990.
M.J. McElrath, G. Kaplan, R.A. Burkhardt, and Z.A. Cohn. Cutaneous response to recombinant interleukin-2 in human immunodeficiency virus-1 seropositive individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 87(15): 5783-5787, 1990. H. Akuffo, G. Kaplan, R. Kiessling, S. Teklemariam, M. Dietz, H.S. Mariam, M.J. McElrath, and Z.A. Cohn. Administration of recombinant interleukin-2 reduces the local parasite load of patients with disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 161(4): 775-780, 1990.
K.E. Squires, R.D. Schreiber, M.J. McElrath, B.Y. Rubin, S.L. Anderson, and H.W. Murray. Experimental visceral leishmaniasis: role of endogenous IFN-? in host defense and tissue granulomatous response. J Immunol. 143(12): 4244-4249, 1989. E. Langhoff, M.J. McElrath, H. J. Bos, A. Granelli-Piperno, Z.A. Cohn, and R.M. Steinman. Most CD4+ T cells from Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infected patients can undergo prolonged clonal expansion. J Clin Invest. 84(5):1637-1643, 1989.
M.J. McElrath, J.E. Pruett, and Z.A. Cohn. Mononuclear phagocytes of blood and bone marrow: Comparative roles as viral reservoirs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 86(2): 675-679, 1989. N.X. Chin, M.J. McElrath, and H.C. Neu. Beta-lactamase inhibition by acetylmethylene penicillanic acid compared to that of clavulanate and sulbactam. Chemotherapy. 34(4): 318-25, 1988.
M.J. McElrath, H.W. Murray, and Z.A. Cohn. The dynamics of granuloma formation in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Exp Med. 167(6): 1927-1937, 1988.
M.J. McElrath, H.W. Murray, and Z.A. Cohn. The local cellular immune response in experimental leishmaniasis. Ann Inst Pasteur/Immunol. 138(5): 787-790, 1987. R.A. Galbraith and M.J. McElrath. Heme binding to Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Mol Biochem Parasit. 29(1): 47-54, 1988.
G. Kaplan, A. Nusrat, E.N. Sarno, C.K. Job, M.J. McElrath, J.A. Porto, C. F. Nathan, and Z.A. Cohn. Cellular responses to the intradermal injection of recombinant human ?-interferon in lepromatous leprosy patients. Amer J Path. 128(2): 345-353, 1987.
M.J. McElrath, G. Kaplan, A. Nusrat, and Z.A. Cohn. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. The defect in T cell influx in BALB/c Mice. J Exp Med. 165(2): 546-559, 1987.
M.J. McElrath, D. Goldberg, and H.C. Neu. Allergic cross-reactivity of teicoplanin and vancomycin. Lancet. 1(8471): 47, 1986.
D.C. Brittain, B.E. Scully, M.J. McElrath, R. Steinman, P. Labthavikul, and H.C. Neu. The pharmacokinetics and serum and urine bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin. J Clin Pharmacol. 25(2): 82-88, 1985.
M.J. McElrath, R.M. Galbraith, R.C. Allen. Demonstration of alpha-1 antitrypsin by immunofluorescence of paraffin-embedded hepatic and pancreatic tissue. J Histochem Cytochem. 27(3): 794-796, 1979.